Outdoors Information

How Are Minerals Formed?


MINERALS are naturally occuring, inorganic solids, with a characteristic chemical composition, having a regular atomic structure throughout. Man-made industrial diamonds are not considered true minerals. Having said that, there are also some Organic Minerals, such as Amber. Purists are reluctant to call organic minerals minerals, but they satisfy at least three of the criteria for inorganic mineral makeup, and therefore the point is open to debate.

How Many Minerals are there? There are about 4000 listed minerals on this planet but only a relatively few have gained popularity due to their pleasing apperance, often bizarre shapes, exquisite spectrum of colours, and trading value. Minerals are generally composed of more than one element or compound. Those which are made up of only one element are called Native Elements e.g. gold, silver, mercury, copper. The Conquistadores fell in love with New World gold and "liberated" it by the ship-load to fill the coffers of Government and Church in Spain. Silver too, along with Topaz, Tourmaline, Agate, Ruby, Diamond and many other precious rocks and minerals, have been highly prized for as long as Man was first enchanted by their beauty, commercial value and status it imparted to the wearer.

So, just how are minerals formed? Minerals can be formed in a wide variety of geological environments; deep inside volcanos, at the bottoms of deep oceans, deserts, salt lakes and cooling deep deposits of molten rock. Also, under the influence of heat and or pressure, when solutions and gasses holding concentrations of specific elements cool or evaporate, minerals growths are deposited inside rock fissures or voids. These minerals are sometimes forced through as a suspension in water, the water then evaporating leaving the mineral deposits as crystals (e.g. Amethyst) when the rock void is not fully filled or as Agates, when the rock is completely filled. These minerals are only visible when the rock is split open; it takes some skill to decide which rock to crack open! More about that later. An example of such crystal and mineral specimens for collectors are Geodes which are round rocks containing precipitated mineral salts, these being comomonly Agates (caused by mineral salt crystals forming inside Basalt rocks), Amethysts, Quartz, Jasper.

Minerals don't necessarily need heat or pressure to be formed; water saturated with mineral salts can leave deposits (Stalactites) as it drips down from the roof of a cave, forming corresponding Stalagmites directly below, over the centuries, where the drips hit. Eventually both grow to meet each other and thicken over the years. Sometimes, as a novelty, tourists can hang an item on a line at a cave, over which calcium carbonate saturated water runs; over a period of a few months it becomes encased in a hardening deposit of Calcium Carbonate.

THE THREE TYPES OF ROCK. Ok, the basic scene has been set, now let's examine in more detail the different mechanisms involved in mineral formation. All minerals are formed from ROCKS, which are an aggregate or mixture of various minerals and are the basic materials from which a mineral is formed. Rocks can be either:
Igneous - formed due to volcanic activity from the Earth's core.
Metamorphic - formed because of pressure or heat (e.g. tectonic plates colliding) on existing rocks, changing them into another type of rock.
Sedimentary - resulting from the layered compaction of weathered rock materials and/or shells.

Let us examine these rocks a little further:-

IGNEOUS ROCKS(from the Latin ignis - fire) can be further categorised as being

How Instagram Ruined the Great Outdoors  The New Republic

Social media influencers have helped turn public lands into tourist-infested swamps. And one cantankerous man is fighting back.

Outdoors: West Virginia DNR issues bear reminder | News, Sports, Jobs  Parkersburg News

CHARLESTON — Spring is here and black bears will be coming out of their winter hibernation and looking for food, the West Virginia Division of Natural Resou.

Anderson: Some state legislators would again dip into trust fund for outdoors  Minneapolis Star Tribune

Public beware: Some again want to dip into lottery-fed environmental fund.

Warmer Temps Mean Denver Zoo Flamingo Flock Gets To Move Back Outdoors  CBS Denver

DENVER (CBS4) – It's getting warmer in Colorado and The Denver Zoo is releasing its flock of flamingos back into the habitat. A total of 70 Chilean and ...

Wanted: trail stewards | Outdoors  Lewiston Morning Tribune

Members of the Lewis & Clark Trail Heritage Foundation are looking to recruit new and younger blood for their annual weeklong work outing to maintain the ...

Grady Phillips, founder of Grady's Great Outdoors, dies at 88  Anderson Independent Mail

Henry Grady Phillips, founder of Grady's Great Outdoors in Anderson, died Sunday.

Midd Gone Wild: New Student Environmental Club Takes to the Outdoors  Middlebury Campus

For students who may be interested in engaging intimately with the environment, the Wild Middlebury Project is a great place to start.

Weather means playing safe, waiting for halibut | Outdoors  Coos Bay World

Howdy everyone! As of this writing our bay is starting to clear up and the delightful chocolate milk color is steadily changing back to what is should be, ...

360 Adventure Collective Announces Recipients of 2019 Outdoor Opportunity Grants  Bicycle Retailer

BRAIN does not edit, endorse, or fact check these press releases. They are posted as a *service* to our readers and supporters. Contact us to submit a press ...

Students get outdoors and enjoy Creek Week  Mariposa Gazette

County planner Mikey Goralnik (left) makes a point about the Mariposa Creek to students last week. Photo by Matt JohnsonOne of the major focuses of the ...

Montana Wilderness School introduces teens to outdoors  The Bozeman Daily Chronicle

Last summer, Kayla Wales spent 21 days in the Pioneer Mountains learning to enjoy the rainy times when she was huddled under a tarp as much as the sunny ...

Where to Go Outdoors in the Midlands  Free Times

Whether you're looking to hit the river, hit a hiking trail or hit a golf ball, the Midlands has something to offer.

Respect the outdoors and pick up your trash  The Observer

I hate seeing garbage outside when I'm enjoying nature. Whether I'm fishing on the Yakima River or hiking up Manastash Ridge, I can't help but notice how ...

Outdoors Report: April 19, 2019 | Sports | journaltimes.com  Journal Times

The snow that fell last week across the north is diminishing and has disappeared where it fell in the southeast. NOAA satellite images show the rapid loss of ...

The elevated outdoors - Feature Story - Local Stories - April 18, 2019  Sacramento News & Review

By Olivia Monahan. There's nothing like enjoying the beautiful places and spaces of Sacramento—while high. Published on April 18, 2019 as Feature Story in ...

Boone Creek Outdoors needs votes to make USA Today top 10 list  Richmond Register

The Boone Creek Outdoors aerial adventure course, just 15 minutes outside of Madison County off exit 99, is currently ranked 15th on USA Today's list of Best ...

CALENDAR: CSI Outdoor Recreation Calendar, April 18 - 24 | Outdoors  Twin Falls Times-News

Spend the morning getting your zen on with the CSI ORC. This trip includes transportation and yoga mats if needed. Meet at CSI ORC. All gear provided.

Plan, register ahead for BMLT nature, outdoors events  Walla Walla Union-Bulletin

Blue Mountain Land Trust in Walla Walla works to connect community with the land through its Learning on the Land and Nature Kids education series.

Get into spirit of the outdoors at Discover WILD NH Day  The Union Leader

CONCORD — Get into the spirit of the outdoors at the annual Discover WILD New Hampshire Day from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Saturday at 11 Haven Drive.

Workshops offer women outdoors skills instruction  Toledo Blade

If the outdoors — the hunting camps, fly fishing streams, guiding profession, campgrounds, duck blinds, marinas, shooting ranges, hiking trails, and charter ...

Spring means mushroom time | Outdoors  Perry County Republic Monitor

Spring is roaring. Dogwoods are blooming. So are the red buds.

Outdoors notebook: Bass fishing, turkey season and more  AL.com

Bass fishing action, turkey hunting, and a meeting of Alabama's Forever Wild are all on the agenda.

OUTDOORS: Salmon season-setting process broken  Peninsula Daily News

JUNE'S MEETING OF the Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission will be held June 14-15 in Port Angeles and the testimony arising out of the “open public ...

Outdoors, Chinook on the hook  Coeur d'Alene Press

IDFG image An angler holds a juvenile Spirit Lake chinook. Landlocked chinook salmon in Spirit Lake, first planted in 2016, are reaching the 20 to 24-inch mark, ...

Enjoy the great outdoors at Earth Day celebrations  Journal Inquirer

Earth Day is just around the corner, with celebrations scheduled this weekend and next in honor of the environmental movement first staged April 22, 1970.

Palmetto Gas wants to help customers add life to their outdoors  Sumter Item

With the opening of the second phase of its business earlier this month, Palmetto Gas wants to help area residents 'make your outdoor area your favorite room in ...

MONROE OUTDOORS: Pollen has a purpose (besides causing allergies)  Monroe County Reporter

Since March, pollen has made its presence known across the Monroe County countryside. As such, nowadays puddles of rainwater rimmed in yellow are ...

Outdoors in Maine: Club fighting against salmon endangered classification  Lewiston Sun Journal

There's a worthy saying that goes like this: “Bad things happen when good men do nothing.” The Veazie Salmon Club, to its credit, is not sitting on its collective ...

OTHA BARHAM: Greatest outdoor moments  Meridian Star

For thousands of years, a segment of our human kind have been awestruck by the sights, sounds and smells of the outdoor environment. I am one of those lucky ...

Look What the Cat Dragged In: Parasites  The New York Times

You got a kitten. Congratulations! You've joined the club of more than 36 million Americans with pet cats. Now, will your kitty be an indoor cat or an outdoor cat?

Napa Valley Fishing Report: Plenty of salmon caught on opening day  Napa Valley Register

Well, Liesl Didn't Listen… to me. Look at these two wonderful king salmon that St. Helena angler Liesl Wolf-Heinemann caught on opening day. She was fishing ...

3rd Friday returns outdoors with spring theme  Salisbury Independent

This week is the next 3rd Friday in Downtown Salisbury and spring has finally sprung. That means this 3rd Friday will be back outside, with artists and crafters ...

Active outdoors: Awareness helps avoid spring booby traps  Concord Monitor

At this time of year, it's easy to get lulled into believing that spring is finally here. It has to get warmer, doesn't it? Sure. Eventually. Some day. But in the meantime ...

Girl Scouts of WNY celebrates women and the great outdoors this week  Olean Times Herald

Girl Scout Camp Week, which started this Monday, is a time to celebrate Girl Scouts as groundbreakers, big thinkers and role models in the great outdoors.

A Pottawattamie County Almanac: Morels, lichens and fungi  The Daily Nonpareil

Experience nature in a new way as Pottawattamie County Conservation combines nature, art and exploration in the adult education series, “A Pottawattamie ...

Outdoors events, 4/14  Lincoln Journal Star

CLUB NOTICE. The Lincoln Trap and Skeet and Sporting Clays Club, 4805 N. 48th St., is forming summer trap leagues. Individuals and five-member teams are ...

OUTDOORS: Memories of Center Hill | Sports | wilsonpost.com  Wilson Post

The sun is starting to sink and we are in one of my favorite coves on Center Hill. It is not my Center Hill of years past.

Spring is peeking around the corner | Outdoors  The Laconia Daily Sun

If ever there were a spring day so perfect,. so uplifted by a warm intermittent breeze. that it made you want to throw. advertisement. open all the windows in the ...

Local News CTX runners stress spring fitness safety when headed outdoors Vince Erickson 6:40 AM  KXXV News Channel 25

Spring time can a fun time to get in shape in the great outdoors, but it can be dangerous too.

Nursing kits, osprey platform, young turkey hunters: Notes, Chicago outdoors  Chicago Sun-Times

Nursing fox kits, an osprey nesting platform and young turkey hunters are among the notes around Chicago outdoors.

Madison glamping company makes adventuring in the outdoors chic  Channel3000.com - WISC-TV3

There is nothing quite like falling asleep under the stars and a Madison-based luxury camping and events company is making roughing it a breeze with ...

OUTDOORS CALENDAR | Outdoors | wiscnews.com  WiscNews

April 15 through July 31 – It is illegal to allow dogs to run on DNR lands and Federal Waterfowl Production Areas lands during this time unless the dog is.

Get Outdoors: Pattison State Park  KBJR 6

Spring-time is a period of melting snow and ice, and At Pattison State Park.. the water flows over some beautiful waterfalls. In this week's Get Outdoors,

High water forces Kenduskeag canoe race organizers to move finish line  Bangor Daily News

A concern about the water level at high tide in downtown Bangor has prompted organizers of the 53rd Kenduskeag Stream Canoe Race to change the finish line ...

Outdoors: The weather started getting rough, but still they fished on  Waco Tribune-Herald

Nineteen teams, battered by wind, rain, and hail, braved Saturday morning's wild weather to vie for the top prize and bragging rights at the 49th Annual Waco ...

7 Great Deals on Outdoor Tech and Camera Gear  Outside Magazine

The right tools can make your experience outdoors even better. Start with these deals on our favorite equipment and accessories. Jeremy Rellosa · portable ...

Local News, Outdoors: CRITTERS OF NORTH IDAHO: Wild Turkey  Coeur d'Alene Press

On Jan. 26, 1784, Benjamin Franklin described in a letter to his daughter the bird he championed as the perfec.

Local Outdoors: Chippewa County Deer Advisory Council finalizes recommendations for 2019 season  Chippewa Herald

The Chippewa County Deer Advisory Council made a few changes before it approved its final recommendations for the 2019 deer season at its last meeting of ...

Learning takes to the great outdoors for Rochester students  Foster's Daily Democrat

ROCHESTER — Some of Rochester's youngest scientists paid a visit recently to check in on progress toward new outdoor classrooms and other amenities in the ...

Officials launch crackdown on northern pike | Outdoors  Lewiston Morning Tribune

Coeur d'Alene Lake managers will aggressively target northern pike in the southern end of Lake Coeur d'Alene starting this month.

New nonprofit gives back to veterans, military members through outdoor experiences  Dubois County Free Press

Not surprisingly, the magic happens around the campfire, the walks in the woods and the drives to the hunting grounds. Those are the moments that stick with ...

Inside the Outdoors: The intersection of cars and wildlife: What happens if you hit an animal?  Canyon Courier

The sun is just breaking over the mountain as you drive to work, and a deer springs heedlessly and unavoidably into your path. Later in the evening, the ...

Nests are something to get 'egg-cited' over this spring!  Bonners Ferry Herald

Photos by DON BARTLING This cup nest is distinctive because of the thick mud used to hold it together, which its builder (the robin) painstakingly transported by ...

Outdoors: Perfect conditions lead to competitive striper tournament  Roanoke Times

The Striper Mafia Spring Fling fishing tournament was held last weekend at Smith Mountain Lake under what tournament director Mike Ward described as ...

How to protect your personal safety while outdoors alone  WPSD Local 6

PADUCAH — As it gets warmer outside, many of you will spend more time outside — going on runs, walks, or playing with your kids. It's important to be aware of ...

Industry Buzz: Cotopaxi Foundation, Patagonia lawsuit, Coozie Outdoors, REI profit, Bill Supple, and more  SNEWS

On Cotopaxi's fifth birthday, the brand is launching the Cotopaxi Foundation to help educate and support underprivileged and underrepresented communities.

Falcons schedule 2019: Atlanta only has 3 outdoor games  The Falcoholic

The 2019 Falcons schedule has its share of tough games, divisional gauntlets, and even one or two games that look very easy on paper. For all that, though, ...

Courtyards act as transitions between indoors, outdoors  Las Vegas Review-Journal

Dear Gail: We live in an older neighborhood on a nice quiet street. We have a very large front yard and were thinking about adding a courtyard. We entertain a ...

Outdoors briefs: Smith River State Park now open to float  Great Falls Tribune

Montana State Parks announced that Smith River State Park is open to floaters as of Monday, April 15. The park opening had been scheduled for April 1 but was ...

Encouraging Women to Better Explore South Dakota Outdoors  KDLT News

Eastern South Dakota may not have the most challenging hiking and biking trails, mountainous regions to climb, or rivers to run, but there is still a lot of land ...

OUTDOORS: East Texas Fishing Report  Huntsville Item

NACOGDOCHES - Water level is two inches low and stained.

Opening day at Squam Lakes Natural Science Center is May 1  The Laconia Daily Sun

HOLDERNESS — Squam Lakes Natural Science Center is preparing for opening day of the 2019 trail season on Wednesday, May 1. Regular hours are 9:30 ...

Arkansas' disabled veterans may receive lifetime hunting-fishing license  Magnoliareporter

A bill signed by Gov. Asa Hutchinson this week creates an Arkansas Game and Fish Commission resident disabled veterans license that includes a lifetime ...

Outdoors in Maine: Studies aim to understand smelt cycles  Lewiston Sun Journal

It can vary by days, but in Maine the middle of April always ushers in the annual smelt runs from coldwater lakes up nearby brooks and streams. As every salmon ...

Captain's Log: Scary Critter Moments While Driving a Car  Noozhawk

There are some very scary moments while driving a car. Probably the one we all fear is a child running out into the street in front of us. It is for that reason that I ...

Victim of fall, Nampa woman remembered for love of outdoors and adventure  malheurenterprise.com

Family members say Amanda Poole, who died March 30 in a fall from a cliff, should be remembered for her sense of adventure and love of life.

Connection to sunlight, outdoors drives modern-home demand  Washington Post

On nearly a national level, the grip of traditional home archetypes has loosened exponentially faster than modern homes can be erected.

OUTDOORS: Strait of Juan de Fuca chinook seasons hit hard by cuts  Peninsula Daily News

PORT ANGELES — Significant restrictions in recreational fishing opportunities along the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound were revealed when ...

Vivint's New Outdoor Camera Pro Helps Stop Thieves Before They Strike  Forbes

Vivint has built a brand new outdoor camera that's not just vigilant, but smart enough to tell when you need to know who's lurking around your place.

Outdoors: Turkey season washed away ... again | Recreation  The Southern

As you read this Sunday morning, I should be turkey hunting.

OUTDOORS NOTEBOOK: Still sporting the antlers  Bemidji Pioneer

BEMIDJI—Dave Rave, DNR Bemidji area wildlife supervisor, recently spotted a buck still sporting his antlers near the Minnesota Department of Natural ...

Spring is a good time for Panhandle bird watching  Coeur d'Alene Press

The wood ducks came in a few at a time, splashed down and then, peeping in their wood duck language, began fee.

CSA Exclusive: New rental site start-up targets outdoor enthusiasts  Chain Store Age

Santa Monica-based outdoor gear rental platform Coozie Outdoors is hoping to do for outdoor lovers what Rent the Runway did for fashionistas. Cofounders and ...

The Bowerman: 2019 Men's Mid-Outdoor Watch List ::: The Bowerman: The Nation's Top Award for Collegiate Track & Field Athletes  U.S. Track & Field and Cross Country Coaches Association

NEW ORLEANS – Things are kind of in a holding pattern right now when it comes to the Men's Watch List for The Bowerman. While there has been a bunch of ...

Outdoors news in brief  Bennington Banner

MONTPELIER. High number of owl deaths reported. The Vermont Department of Fish & Wildlife says it's received an unusually high number of reports about owl ...

Outdoor lesson teaches measuring to Woodland Park students  The Advocate

Paula Dirickson's fourth grade math class at Woodland Park Magnet School headed outdoors for a measuring lesson, learning about converting measurements ...

Outdoors Report: Missoula conservation group seeing rapid growth  KPAX-TV

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1st Massachusetts farmers moving toward approval to grow marijuana outdoors  MassLive.com

The Cannabis Control Commission approved the first two provisional licenses for companies — Theory Wellness and BCWC — that plan to grow marijuana ...

Where to find the original ‘duck boots’ and other outdoor essentials  fox13now.com

You've likely seen the iconic snow- and rain-boot known as the "duck boot," but do you know who came out with the very first pair? Ryan Poulin from LL Bean ...

'I can do it!': SportsAbility provides outdoor opportunities at Maclay Gardens State Park  Tallahassee.com

Hundreds of outdoor activity lovers bustled through Maclay Gardens State Park Saturday afternoon. SportsAbility, a program with the Florida Disabled Outdoors ...

Veteran paddler offers Kenduskeag primer for spectators, new participants  Bangor Daily News

Jeff Owen of Orono has spent thousands of hours in canoes in his lifetime, and figures he has participated in 35 Kenduskeag Stream Canoe Races over the ...

Get fit outdoors at RiverScape for free  dayton.com

RiverScape MetroPark in Dayton offers a variety of free classes from May through August from Bootcamp, to yoga to cardio dance.

Nicolet College Outdoor Adventure program launches summer session  Starjournalnow

The great outdoors will take center stage in Nicolet College's Outdoor Adventure program this summer with a wide range of offerings all designed to up the fun ...

‘Abby’s’ Takes the Sitcom Somewhere New: Outdoors  The New York Times

On the backyard set of this NBC bar comedy, they're always glad you came. (“They” are raccoons and skunks who like craft services.)

Outdoors Happenings: April 11, 2019  Yakima Herald-Republic

Arbor Day Festival set for Saturday. The Yakima Area Arboretum will host its 20th annual free Arbor Day Festival with the theme “A Walk in the Woods”, this ...

Linda Tatsapaugh '88, Davidson Outdoors Host Tree Climb With a Purpose  Davidson News

Lydia Soifer has always enjoyed a good tree, first as a young kid swinging from a low branch in her back yard, then later, perched on a high limb reading a book.

Outdoor notes: New process for awarding big game draw permits starts this year  Scottsbluff Star Herald

Hunters should be aware of a new process for awarding big game draw permits starting this year, the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission says. Applicants ...

Clearing the Mount Washington Auto Road, one foot at a time  The Union Leader

GREEN'S GRANT — On Wednesday, the annual clearing of the Mount Washington Auto Road entered its second week, with a team working in the “S Curves” ...

Where to Find the Best Outdoor Happy Hour Bars in DC  Washingtonian

Take advantage of specials in the sunshine at these bars and beer gardens.

Outdoor preschool carries on in Cedarsong tradition  Vashon-Maury Island Beachcomber

Young children are continuing to play and learn outdoors at the former home of Cedarsong Nature School, following the death last fall of Erin Kenny, the school's ...

OUTDOORS NOTEBOOK: Crookston taxidermist racks up awards, DNR...  Grand Forks Herald

Master taxidermist Nick Genereux of Outdoor Addictions Taxidermy in Crookston recently won his second Judges Choice Best of Show award with a ...

Spring football notebook: South Dakota Coyotes enjoying life in the great outdoors  Sioux Falls Argus Leader

VERMILLION — The last few wintry days not withstanding, the South Dakota football team has enjoyed practicing outside whilst renovations begin inside the ...

Many NCWV churches beginning Easter outdoors on Easter Sunday  WV News

CLARKSBURG — Many churches in the North Central West Virginia region hope to begin their Easter Sunday services outside next weekend.

Book Review: A thriller about strong, capable outdoors women  Foster's Daily Democrat

"The Last Woman in the Forest"By Diane Les Becquets. Berkley, 2019. 352 pages. $26 Women. Wilderness. Danger. Three words often viewed in close ...

Outdoor recreation group tours the state to hear from businesses  vtdigger.org

A backpack that held 50 pounds of camping and cooking supplies — and a mandolin. Provided photo. A group of Vermont outdoor businesses is holding ...

DONATION STATION: Academy Sports + Outdoors in Tyler accepting donations for Alto tornado victims  CBS19.tv KYTX

Items will be collected Tuesday from 8 a.m. until 2 p.m..

If You Absolutely Hate Camping, But Love The Outdoors, Take These 5 Vacations Instead  Elite Daily

I'm the first person to opt for an outdoorsy adventure — as long as it's temporary. In other words, I will gladly go kayaking, hiking, or even horseback riding in the ...

9 Outdoor Gear Brands that Cleverly Utilize Recycled Goods  The Manual

Gear manufacturers are utilizing more recycled materials, which further diverts the need for raw materials to be created. Here are nine outdoor companies that ...

Check out the Outdoors calendar | Sports | theadvocate.com  The Advocate

STATE OYSTER TASK FORCE MEETING: 1 p.m., East Bank Regional Library, 4747 West Napoleon, Metairie. LAFAYETTE KAYAK FISHING CLUB MEETING: 6 ...

Learning Outdoors  WDTN.com

Let nature be your classroom! Get outside with your kids this spring and teach them something new.

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