Science Information

The Wages of Science


In the United States, Congress approved, last month, increases in the 2003 budgets of both the National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation. America is not alone in - vainly - trying to compensate for imploding capital markets and risk-averse financiers.

In 1999, chancellor Gordon Brown inaugurated a $1.6 billion program of "upgrading British science" and commercializing its products. This was on top of $1 billion invested between 1998-2002. The budgets of the Medical Research Council and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council were quadrupled overnight.

The University Challenge Fund was set to provide $100 million in seed money to cover costs related to the hiring of managerial skills, securing intellectual property, constructing a prototype or preparing a business plan. Another $30 million went to start-up funding of high-tech, high-risk companies in the UK.

According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the top 29 industrialized nations invest in R&D more than $600 billion a year. The bulk of this capital is provided by the private sector. In the United Kingdom, for instance, government funds are dwarfed by private financing, according to the British Venture Capital Association. More than $80 billion have been ploughed into 23,000 companies since 1983, about half of them in the hi-tech sector. Three million people are employed in these firms. Investments surged by 36 percent in 2001 to $18 billion.

But this British exuberance is a global exception.

Even the - white hot - life sciences field suffered an 11 percent drop in venture capital investments last year, reports the MoneyTree Survey. According to the Ernst & Young 2002 Alberta Technology Report released on Wednesday, the Canadian hi-tech sector is languishing with less than $3 billion invested in 2002 in seed capital - this despite generous matching funds and tax credits proffered by many of the provinces as well as the federal government.

In Israel, venture capital plunged to $600 million last year - one fifth its level in 2000. Aware of this cataclysmic reversal in investor sentiment, the Israeli government set up 24 hi-tech incubators. But these are able merely to partly cater to the pecuniary needs of less than 20 percent of the projects submitted.

As governments pick up the monumental slack created by the withdrawal of private funding, they attempt to rationalize and economize.

The New Jersey Commission of Health Science Education and Training recently proposed to merge the state's three public research universities. Soaring federal and state budget deficits are likely to exert added pressure on the already strained relationship between academe and state - especially with regards to research priorities and the allocation of ever-scarcer resources.

This friction is inevitable because the interaction between technology and science is complex and ill-understood. Some technological advances spawn new scientific fields - the steel industry gave birth to metallurgy, computers to computer science and the transistor to solid state physics. The discoveries of science also lead, though usually circuitously, to technological breakthroughs - consider the examples of semiconductors and biotechnology.

Thus, it is safe to generalize and say that the technology sector is only the more visible and alluring tip of the drabber iceberg of research and development. The military, universities, institutes and industry all over the world plough hundreds of billions annually into both basic and applied studies. But governments are the most important sponsors of pure scientific pursuits by a long shot.

Science is widely perceived as a public good - its benefits are shared. Rational individuals would do well to sit back and copy the outcomes of research - rather than produce widely replicated discoveries themselves. The government has to step in to provide them with incentives to innovate.

Thus, in the minds of most laymen and many economists, science is associated exclusively with publicly-funded universities and the defense establishment. Inventions such as the jet aircraft and the Internet are often touted as examples of the civilian benefits of publicly funded military research. The pharmaceutical, biomedical, information technology and space industries, for instance - though largely private - rely heavily on the fruits of nonrivalrous (i.e. public domain) science sponsored by the state.

The majority of 501 corporations surveyed by the Department of Finance and Revenue Canada in 1995-6 reported that government funding improved their internal cash flow - an important consideration in the decision to undertake research and development. Most beneficiaries claimed the tax incentives for seven years and recorded employment growth.

In the absence of efficient capital markets and adventuresome capitalists, some developing countries have taken this propensity to extremes. In the Philippines, close to 100 percent of all R&D is government-financed. The meltdown of foreign direct investment flows - they declined by nearly three fifths since 2000 - only rendered state involvement more indispensable.

But this is not a universal trend. South Korea, for instance, effected a successful transition to private venture capital which now - even after the Asian turmoil of 1997 and the global downturn of 2001 - amounts to four fifths of all spending on R&D.

Thus, supporting ubiquitous government entanglement in science is overdoing it. Most applied R&D is still conducted by privately owned industrial outfits. Even "pure" science - unadulterated by greed and commerce - is sometimes bankrolled by private endowments and foundations.

Moreover, the conduits of government involvement in research, the universities, are only weakly correlated with growing prosperity. As Alison Wolf, professor of education at the University of London elucidates in her seminal tome "Does Education Matter? Myths about Education and Economic Growth", published last year, extra years of schooling and wider access to university do not necessarily translate to enhanced growth (though technological innovation clearly does).

Terence Kealey, a clinical biochemist, vice-chancellor of the University of Buckingham in England and author of "The Economic Laws of Scientific Research", is one of a growing band of scholars who dispute the intuitive linkage between state-propped science and economic progress. In an interview published last week by Scientific American, he recounted how he discovered that:

"Of all the lead industrial countries, Japan - the country investing least in science - was growing fastest. Japanese science grew spectacularly under laissez-faire. Its science was actually purer than that of the U.K. or the U.S. The countries with the next least investment were France and Germany, and were growing next fastest. And the countries with the maximum investment were the U.S., Canada and U.K., all of which were doing very badly at the time."

The Economist concurs: "it is hard for governments to pick winners in technology." Innovation and science sprout in - or migrate to - locations with tough laws regarding intellectual property rights, a functioning financial system, a culture of "thinking outside the box" and a tradition of excellence.

Government can only remove obstacles - especially red tape and trade tariffs - and nudge things in the right direction by investing in infrastructure and institutions. Tax incentives are essential initially. But if the authorities meddle, they are bound to ruin science and be rued by scientists.

Still, all forms of science funding - both public and private - are lacking.

State largesse is ideologically constrained, oft-misallocated, inefficient and erratic. In the United States, mega projects, such as the Superconducting Super Collider, with billions already sunk in, have been abruptly discontinued as were numerous other defense-related schemes. Additionally, some knowledge gleaned in government-funded research is barred from the public domain.

But industrial money can be worse. It comes with strings attached. The commercially detrimental results of drug studies have been suppressed by corporate donors on more than one occasion, for instance. Commercial entities are unlikely to support basic research as a public good, ultimately made available to their competitors as a "spillover benefit". This understandable reluctance stifles innovation.

There is no lack of suggestions on how to square this circle.

Quoted in the Philadelphia Business Journal, Donald Drakeman, CEO of the Princeton biotech company Medarex, proposed last month to encourage pharmaceutical companies to shed technologies they have chosen to shelve: "Just like you see little companies coming out of the research being conducted at Harvard and MIT in Massachusetts and Stanford and Berkley in California, we could do it out of Johnson & Johnson and Merck."

This would be the corporate equivalent of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980. The statute made both academic institutions and researchers the owners of inventions or discoveries financed by government agencies. This unleashed a wave of unprecedented self-financing entrepreneurship.

In the two decades that followed, the number of patents registered to universities increased tenfold and they spun off more than 2200 firms to commercialize the fruits of research. In the process, they generated $40 billion in gross national product and created 260,000 jobs.

None of this was government financed - though, according to The Economist's Technology Quarterly, $1 in research usually requires up to $10,000 in capital to get to market. This suggests a clear and mutually profitable division of labor - governments should picks up the tab for basic research, private capital should do the rest, stimulated by the transfer of intellectual property from state to entrepreneurs.

But this raises a host of contentious issues.

Such a scheme may condition industry to depend on the state for advances in pure science, as a kind of hidden subsidy. Research priorities are bound to be politicized and lead to massive misallocation of scarce economic resources through pork barrel politics and the imposition of "national goals". NASA, with its "let's put a man on the moon (before the Soviets do)" and the inane International Space Station is a sad manifestation of such dangers.

Science is the only public good that is produced by individuals rather than collectives. This inner conflict is difficult to resolve. On the one hand, why should the public purse enrich entrepreneurs? On the other hand, profit-driven investors seek temporary monopolies in the form of intellectual property rights. Why would they share this cornucopia with others, as pure scientists are compelled to do?

The partnership between basic research and applied science has always been an uneasy one. It has grown more so as monetary returns on scientific insight have soared and as capital available for commercialization multiplied. The future of science itself is at stake.

Were governments to exit the field, basic research would likely crumble. Were they to micromanage it - applied science and entrepreneurship would suffer. It is a fine balancing act and, judging by the state of both universities and startups, a precarious one as well.

About The Author

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Until recently, he served as the Economic Advisor to the Government of Macedonia.

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com; palma@unet.com.mk


MORE RESOURCES:
U.S. science adviser sees smaller federal role  Science Magazine

The new science adviser to President Donald Trump wants to usher in a new golden era of U.S. science—but with less gold from the federal government. Ending ...


Hachimoji DNA and RNA: A genetic system with eight building blocks  Science Magazine

DNA and RNA are naturally composed of four nucleotide bases that form hydrogen bonds in order to pair. Hoshika et al. added an additional four synthetic ...


Did volcanic eruptions help kill off the dinosaurs?  Science Magazine

What killed off the dinosaurs? The answer has seemed relatively simple since the discovery a few decades ago of a large impact crater in the Gulf of Mexico.


The top five films about science or scientists  physicsworld.com

Four years have passed since Physics World proclaimed “Science cleans up at the Oscars” — and things have only got better since then. Last year, The Shape ...


Deal reveals what scientists in Germany are paying for open access  Science Magazine

Project Deal, a consortium of libraries, universities, and research institutes in Germany, has unveiled an unprecedented deal with a major journal ...


Seoul Will Welcome a Robot Science Museum Constructed by Robots  Smithsonian.com

Seoul's Robot Science Museum (RSM) will welcome its inaugural exhibition before construction is even complete: As Dezeen's India Block explains, robots and ...


United States extends fetal tissue contract and revives one experiment  Science Magazine

The U.S. government's leading medical research agency is quietly extending and reviving research that relies on human fetal tissue, even as President Donald ...


Curiosity Took the Weekend Off from Science on Mars Due to Glitch  Space.com

NASA's Curiosity rover on Mars went into safe mode last weekend after an error booting up on Feb. 15, but the rover is communicating normally and should be ...


Rediscovery of world's largest bee has scientists abuzz  Lompoc Record

The Wallace's giant bee is as big as a human thumb. Scientists were delighted when a team of researchers recently found it in Indonesia.


NASA Picks Science Experiments to Send to the Moon This Year - D-brief  Discover Magazine

Following on the heels of its announcement to return to the moon this year, NASA announced Thursday the first batch of science projects and technology ...


Catalytic reductive [4 + 1]-cycloadditions of vinylidenes and dienes  Science Magazine

The Diels-Alder reaction is widely used to make six-membered rings by adding four-carbon dienes to two-carbon alkenes. It would seem straightforward to ...


Nobel laureate shares his love of science and art in campus talk  UNC Chapell Hill

Theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate Kip Thorne combines a love of art and science in his work, and he shared that passion with an audience that packed ...


Do we need another massive particle collider? Science Weekly podcast  The Guardian

With the Large Hadron Collider reaching its upper limits, scientists around the world are drawing up plans for a new generation of super colliders. Ian Sample ...


How secret, late-night experiments transformed two scientists into master cartoonists  Science Magazine

WASHINGTON, D.C.—Five years ago, two scientists in two labs separated by thousands of kilometers started to stay late and work weekends to conduct secret ...


HIV drug could improve recovery after stroke  Science Magazine

Stroke treatment has been a race against time. In the hours after a stroke, the clot-busting treatment tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can limit damage to the ...


Billings science students find success from failure  KTVQ Billings News

BILLINGS- Students have learned that mistakes and failure are good and necessary in science. The Billings Public Schools showcased the benefits of Project ...


Ivanka Trump claimed her dad’s administration is a “driver of science,” and Twitter has roasts for days  HelloGiggles

First daughter Ivanka Trump retweeted a post in praise of the current administration's work in the sciences...and Twitter is not here for that spin.


Communications Workshop Helps Bridge Gap Between Scientists and Public  State of the Planet

On February 21, scientists learned the essentials of science communication during a half-day workshop at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.


Why sparks fly when you microwave grapes  Science Magazine

Physicists burned out 12 microwaves putting this trick to the test.


Ancient humans hunted monkeys for tens of thousands of years  Science Magazine

If you picture early humans dining, you likely imagine them sitting down to a barbecue of mammoth, aurochs, and giant elk meat. But in the rainforests of Sri ...


Weekly Digest (Feb 18-22, 2019): Top Weather, Environment and Science Stories of the Week  The Weather Channel

A roundup of the week's top stories on The Weather Channel India.


Diving into Earth's interior helps scientists unravel secrets of diamond formation  Science Daily

Understanding the global carbon cycle provides scientists with vital clues about the planet's habitability.


Japan’s Hayabusa 2 successfully touches down on Ryugu asteroid  The Guardian

The probe was due to fire a pellet into the surface of the asteroid to try to capture dust.


Herkimer gears up for Utica Academy of Science  WUTR/WFXV - CNYhomepage.com

Herkimer didn't come close to beating the Utica Academy of Science in their first two meetings of the season.


Women in science and medicine still fighting for equality at the top with babies in tow  ABC News

Holding a baby in one hand while finishing a paper with the other or being criticised for returning to work too early — these are common occurrences for new ...


Engineering HIV-resistant babies may have accidentally changed their brains  Popular Science

In November 2018, a group of researchers in China divulged what scientists around the world feared: In what many researchers now call an ethically dubious ...


Rookies lead the way on House science panel  Science Magazine

A major perk of being the majority party in the U.S. Congress is getting to fill the leadership slots on every committee. For several new Democratic legislators, ...


Scientists sharpen their molecular scissors and expand the gene editing toolbox  Science Daily

Scientists have figured out a better way to deliver a DNA editing tool to shorten the presence of the editor proteins in the cells in what they describe as a 'hit and ...


The art (and science) of true happiness  Aleteia EN

Did you know that eating chocolate, strawberries, and even spinach, can make you feel happy? Similarly, the simple act of smiling can elevate your mood.


Scientists rally around Vanderbilt professor whose tenure bid appeared to hit roadblocks as Me Too activism grew  Inside Higher Ed

A Vanderbilt faculty member, considered a hero to many women in science, finds her once promising tenure bid has stalled.


Inferring Earth's discontinuous chemical layering from the 660-kilometer boundary topography  Science Magazine

The boundaries between rocks with different physical properties in Earth's interior come from either a change in crystal structure or a change in chemical ...


Western mourns passing of third-year Science student  The Gazette • Western University's Newspaper

Kenneth Oommen, a third-year Western University student in the Faculty of Science, passed away suddenly at his home on Sunday. The flag atop University ...


Ultraviolet light could provide a powerful new source of green fuel  Science Magazine

Scientists find potentially cheap way to turn methanol into ethanol.


480-Million-Year-Old Mystery Creature Finally Identified from Its Preserved Guts  Live Science

What the heck is this weird ancient animal? New fossils have helped scientists figure it out.


Mighty T. Rex Began As Cute, Deer-Size Dino  Live Science

Newfound tyrannosaur species offers clues about T. rex's family tree.


Scientists solve mystery of a fish called Mary's 'virgin' birth  Science Daily

A female stickleback fish, nick-named 'Mary,' has produced offspring from eggs that appear to have been fertilized while they were still inside her, according to ...


Germany's wolves are on the rise thanks to a surprising ally: the military  Science Magazine

Wolves are an impressive success story for wildlife recovery in central Europe, bouncing back from near extermination in the 20th century to a population of ...


How far out can we forecast the weather? Scientists have a new answer  Science Magazine

Last month, as much of the United States shivered in Arctic cold, weather models predicted a seemingly implausible surge of balmy, springlike warmth. A week ...


Hindu nationalists claim that ancient Indians had airplanes, stem cell technology, and the internet  Science Magazine

The rapid rise of pseudoscience in the Modi era triggers ridicule and concern.


Open Science, Open Source and R  Linux Journal

Free software will save psychology from the Replication Crisis. "Study reveals that a lot of psychology research really is just 'psycho-babble'".—The Independent ...


AAAS: Machine learning 'causing science crisis'  BBC News

Machine-learning techniques used by thousands of scientists to analyse data are producing results that are misleading and often completely wrong.


Supramolecular architectures of molecularly thin yet robust free-standing layers  Science Advances

Stable, single-nanometer thin, and free-standing two-dimensional layers with controlled molecular architectures are desired for several applications ranging ...


Dynamic gating of infrared radiation in a textile  Science Magazine

Textiles trap infrared radiation, which helps keep us warm in cold weather. Of course, in hot weather, this is less desirable. Zhang et al. constructed an ...


Ivanka Trump Retweets Praise Of Administration As 'Driver For Science,' Twitter Gags  HuffPost

Snarky tweets reminded the president's daughter about White House denials of climate change.


Life on Mars BREAKTHROUGH: How 'HOLY GRAIL’ discovery boosts search for life on Red Planet  Express.co.uk

THE search for life on Mars was boosted yesterday after scientists uncovered the “Holy Grail” discovery they had been hoping to make for years, a BBC Radio 4 ...


The science of insect population collapse  The Saturday Paper

Amid recent warnings of the mass extinction of insects in the coming decades, the global lack of research into insect populations has come into focus.


Trump to launch artificial intelligence initiative, but many details lacking  Science Magazine

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a defining issue of our time, affecting national security, economic development, human rights, and social media—for better ...


High-tide flooding disrupts local economic activity  Science Advances

Evaluation of observed sea level rise impacts to date has emphasized sea level extremes, such as those from tropical cyclones. Far less is known about the ...


Scalable and safe synthetic organic electroreduction inspired by Li-ion battery chemistry  Science Magazine

The so-called Birch reduction is frequently used by chemists despite its daunting conditions: Pyrophoric sodium is dissolved in pure liquified ammonia to achieve ...


At many river deltas, scientists are missing a major source of sea level rise  Science Magazine

For coastal communities, the sea level rise propelled by melting ice and warming oceans is bad enough. But people living on the soft, compressible sediments of ...


Update: NASA declares end of Opportunity's mission  Science Magazine

*Update, 13 February, 2:10 p.m.: After more than a thousand attempts to revive the Opportunity rover, including a final unanswered command last night, NASA ...


Star Trek–like replicator creates entire objects in minutes  Science Magazine

A Star Trek–like replicator has arrived, but don't expect it to synthesize a cup of Earl Grey tea (hot) on the spot. Researchers have come up with a new 3D ...


Neanderthals could have been long-distance killers  Science Magazine

Neanderthals were dangerous—even at a distance. A new study suggests they might have been able to nail prey with their pointy spears from up to 20 meters ...


How scientists are fighting against gender bias in conference speaker lineups  Science Magazine

In 2 weeks, 1000 neuroscientists will descend on Vancouver, Canada, for the Third International Brain Stimulation Conference. The first two iterations of the ...


Mice, like people, like to be rocked to sleep  Science Magazine

Forget the running wheel. If your pet mouse is an insomniac, what it really needs is a hammock. New research shows that mice, just like humans, fall asleep ...


New app reveals the hidden landscapes within Georgia O'Keeffe's paintings  Science Magazine

WASHINGTON, D.C.—Ever wonder whether a lost masterpiece lies hidden under the surface of a newer work? Researchers at Northwestern University have ...


Scientists unravel genetic basis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  Science Daily

One third of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases in Finland are caused by one of the four major mutations, a new study shows. Overall, 40 percent of patients ...


When did kangaroos start to hop?  Science Magazine

Scientists have long wondered when the kangaroo's distinctive leap first appeared. But ancient kangaroo skeletons are so rare that the hop's origin has ...


Superconductivity wins dancing contest, scientists master the cheese fondue, and the first ever web browser returns  physicsworld.com

Explaining your research, especially as a PhD student, can be a struggle. But communicating it via dance – that's a challenge. Last week, the 11th annual ...


How 18th-Century Writers Created the Genre of Popular Science  Smithsonian.com

French writers such as Voltaire and Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle helped shape the Enlightenment with stories of science.


Pictionary-playing computer connects to humans' 'deep thoughts'  Science Magazine

For decades, scientists have sought to give computers common sense—a basic understanding of the world that lets humans navigate everything from ...


Plastics reach remote pristine environments, scientists say  The Guardian

Scientists have warned about the impact of plastic pollution in the most pristine corners of the world after discovering chemical additives in birds' eggs in the ...


Japan Just Shot a Fake Asteroid with a Space Bullet … for Science  Space.com

JAXA is preparing to sample an asteroid called Ryugu with the agency's Hayabusa2 spacecraft — so the team practiced on Earth first.


Scientists discover the origin of Stonehenge stones – quarries 180 miles away  The Washington Post

A team of archaeologists in the United Kingdom says it has traced dozens of Stonehenge's massive rocks to two quarries in western Wales. The rocks, called ...


Colliding neutron stars shot a light-speed jet through space  Science News

When a pair of ultradense cores of dead stars smashed into one another, the collision shot a bright jet of charged subatomic particles through space.


The northern and southern lights are different. Here's why  Science Magazine

The northern lights (above) and their lesser-known sibling the southern lights, aurora borealis and aurora australis, respectively, undulate across the skies in ...


Older biologic age linked to elevated breast cancer risk: NIH scientists use epigenetics to help predict disease development  Science Daily

Biologic age, a DNA-based estimate of a person's age, is associated with future development of breast cancer, according to scientists. Biologic age was ...


Hayabusa2 just tried to collect asteroid dust for the first time  Science News

The Hayabusa2 spacecraft has quickly tapped the surface of asteroid Ryugu, making the first of three planned attempts to grab a pinch of dust. Analysis of the ...


Climate change 'cause of most under-reported humanitarian crises'  The Guardian

Climate change was responsible for the majority of under-reported humanitarian disasters last year, according to analysis of more than a million online news ...


Scientists uncover how high-fat diet drives colorectal cancer growth: Experimental drug candidate slows cancer progression in mouse model  Science Daily

A new study suggests that high-fat diets fuel colorectal cancer growth by upsetting the balance of bile acids in the intestine and triggering a hormonal signal that ...


Measles cases have tripled in Europe, fueled by Ukrainian outbreak  Science Magazine

Measles cases more than tripled across Europe in 2018, and one country drove much of the surge: Ukraine. Nearly 83,000 cases of measles were reported in ...


Earth's Atmosphere Is Bigger Than We Thought - It Actually Goes Past The Moon  ScienceAlert

We humans like to put labels and boundaries on things. For example, the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space is the Kármán line, the point at 100 ...


Yellowstone volcano: 84 EARTHQUAKES strike supervolcano park - 12 hit AT ONCE  Express.co.uk

YELLOWSTONE volcano was rocked by a total of 84 earthquakes last month, 12 of which struck in a single swarm of tremors, Yellowstone officials have ...


Foxes were domesticated by humans in the Bronze Age  EurekAlert

In the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, between the third and second millennium BC, a widespread funeral practice consisted in burying humans with animals.


Supernovas show the universe expands at the same rate in all directions  Science News

The cosmos doesn't care whether you're looking up or down, left or right: In all directions, the universe is expanding at the same clip. When compared across ...


Earliest example of animal nest sharing revealed by scientists  Science Daily

An international team of scientists has shown that fossilized eggshells unearthed in western Romania represent the earliest known nest site shared by multiple ...


A surface gravity traverse on Mars indicates low bedrock density at Gale crater  Science Magazine

Gravimetry—the measurement of tiny changes in gravitational fields—can be used to weigh mountains. Large-scale gravimetric mapping can be done from orbit, ...


EXCLUSIVE: Controversial experiments that could make bird flu more risky poised to resume  Science Magazine

Controversial lab studies that modify bird flu viruses in ways that could make them more risky to humans will soon resume after being on hold for more than 4 ...


Teen zebra finches seek moms' approval for their new tunes  Science Magazine

It's hard to imagine a teen asking their mother for approval on anything. But a new study shows that male zebra finches—colorful songbirds with complex ...


The 2018 rift eruption and summit collapse of Kīlauea Volcano  Science Magazine

The Kīlauea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i erupted for 3 months in 2018. Neal et al. present a summary of the eruption sequence along with a variety of ...


Microwaved Grapes Spit Plasma, and Scientists Finally Know Why  Live Science

Researchers combined thermal imaging with computer simulations to explain the physics of how microwaving grapes generates plasma.


Evidence mounts that gut bacteria can influence mood, prevent depression  Science Magazine

Of all the many ways the teeming ecosystem of microbes in a person's gut and other tissues might affect health, its potential influences on the brain may be the ...


Watch a maggot 'fountain' devour a pizza in 2 hours  Science Magazine

If you've got the stomach for it, you can watch 10,000 maggots demolish the above pizza in 2 hours. Now, scientists have a better sense of how these fly larvae ...


Ancient Earth rock found on the moon  Science Magazine

What may be the oldest-known Earth rock has turned up in a surprising place: the moon. A 2-centimeter chip embedded in a larger rock collected by Apollo ...


African fossils show ancient advances in walking on two legs  Science News

New Ardipithecus ramidus fossils reveal how hominids were shifting toward humanlike walking more than 4 million years ago.


home | site map | Xray Photography
© 2006