Science Information

Eugenics and the Future of the Human Species


"It is clear that modern medicine has created a serious dilemma ... In the past, there were many children who never survived - they succumbed to various diseases ... But in a sense modern medicine has put natural selection out of commission. Something that has helped one individual over a serious illness can in the long run contribute to weakening the resistance of the whole human race to certain diseases. If we pay absolutely no attention to what is called hereditary hygiene, we could find ourselves facing a degeneration of the human race. Mankind's hereditary potential for resisting serious disease will be weakened."

Jostein Gaarder in "Sophie's World", a bestselling philosophy textbook for adolescents published in Oslo, Norway, in 1991 and, afterwards, throughout the world, having been translated to dozens of languages.

The Nazis regarded the murder of the feeble-minded and the mentally insane - intended to purify the race and maintain hereditary hygiene - as a form of euthanasia. German doctors were enthusiastic proponents of an eugenics movements rooted in 19th century social Darwinism. Luke Gormally writes, in his essay "Walton, Davies, and Boyd" (published in "Euthanasia Examined - Ethical, Clinical, and Legal Perspectives", ed. John Keown, Cambridge University Press, 1995):

"When the jurist Karl Binding and the psychiatrist Alfred Hoche published their tract The Permission to Destroy Life that is Not Worth Living in 1920 ... their motive was to rid society of the 'human ballast and enormous economic burden' of care for the mentally ill, the handicapped, retarded and deformed children, and the incurably ill. But the reason they invoked to justify the killing of human beings who fell into these categories was that the lives of such human beings were 'not worth living', were 'devoid of value'"

It is this association with the hideous Nazi regime that gave eugenics - a term coined by a relative of Charles Darwin, Sir Francis Galton, in 1883 - its bad name. Richard Lynn, of the University of Ulster of North Ireland, thinks that this recoil resulted in "Dysgenics - the genetic deterioration of modern (human) population", as the title of his controversial tome puts it.

The crux of the argument for eugenics is that a host of technological, cultural, and social developments conspired to give rise to negative selection of the weakest, least intelligent, sickest, the habitually criminal, the sexually deviant, the mentally-ill, and the least adapted.

Contraception is more widely used by the affluent and the well-educated than by the destitute and dull. Birth control as practiced in places like China distorted both the sex distribution in the cities - and increased the weight of the rural population (rural couples in China are allowed to have two children rather than the urban one).

Modern medicine and the welfare state collaborate in sustaining alive individuals - mainly the mentally retarded, the mentally ill, the sick, and the genetically defective - who would otherwise have been culled by natural selection to the betterment of the entire species.

Eugenics may be based on a literal understanding of Darwin's metaphor.

The 2002 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica has this to say:

"Darwin's description of the process of natural selection as the survival of the fittest in the struggle for life is a metaphor. 'Struggle' does not necessarily mean contention, strife, or combat; 'survival' does not mean that ravages of death are needed to make the selection effective; and 'fittest' is virtually never a single optimal genotype but rather an array of genotypes that collectively enhance population survival rather than extinction. All these considerations are most apposite to consideration of natural selection in humans. Decreasing infant and childhood mortality rates do not necessarily mean that natural selection in the human species no longer operates. Theoretically, natural selection could be very effective if all the children born reached maturity. Two conditions are needed to make this theoretical possibility realized: first, variation in the number of children per family and, second, variation correlated with the genetic properties of the parents. Neither of these conditions is farfetched."

The eugenics debate is only the visible extremity of the Man vs. Nature conundrum. Have we truly conquered nature and extracted ourselves from its determinism? Have we graduated from natural to cultural evolution, from natural to artificial selection, and from genes to memes?

Does the evolutionary process culminate in a being that transcends its genetic baggage, that programs and charts its future, and that allows its weakest and sickest to survive? Supplanting the imperative of the survival of the fittest with a culturally-sensitive principle may be the hallmark of a successful evolution, rather than the beginning of an inexorable decline.

The eugenics movement turns this argument on its head. They accept the premise that the contribution of natural selection to the makeup of future human generations is glacial and negligible. But they reject the conclusion that, having ridden ourselves of its tyranny, we can now let the weak and sick among us survive and multiply. Rather, they propose to replace natural selection with eugenics.

But who, by which authority, and according to what guidelines will administer this man-made culling and decide who is to live and who is to die, who is to breed and who may not? Why select by intelligence and not by courtesy or altruism or church-going - or al of them together? It is here that eugenics fails miserably. Should the criterion be physical, like in ancient Sparta? Should it be mental? Should IQ determine one's fate - or social status or wealth? Different answers yield disparate eugenic programs and target dissimilar groups in the population.

Aren't eugenic criteria liable to be unduly influenced by fashion and cultural bias? Can we agree on a universal eugenic agenda in a world as ethnically and culturally diverse as ours? If we do get it wrong - and the chances are overwhelming - will we not damage our gene pool irreparably and, with it, the future of our species?

And even if many will avoid a slippery slope leading from eugenics to active extermination of "inferior" groups in the general population - can we guarantee that everyone will? How to prevent eugenics from being appropriated by an intrusive, authoritarian, or even murderous state?

Modern eugenicists distance themselves from the crude methods adopted at the beginning of the last century by 29 countries, including Germany, The United States, Canada, Switzerland, Austria, Venezuela, Estonia, Argentina, Norway, Denmark, Sweden (until 1976), Brazil, Italy, Greece, and Spain.

They talk about free contraceptives for low-IQ women, vasectomies or tubal ligations for criminals, sperm banks with contributions from high achievers, and incentives for college students to procreate. Modern genetic engineering and biotechnology are readily applicable to eugenic projects. Cloning can serve to preserve the genes of the fittest. Embryo selection and prenatal diagnosis of genetically diseased embryos can reduce the number of the unfit.

But even these innocuous variants of eugenics fly in the face of liberalism. Inequality, claim the proponents of hereditary amelioration, is genetic, not environmental. All men are created unequal and as much subject to the natural laws of heredity as are cows and bees. Inferior people give birth to inferior offspring and, thus, propagate their inferiority.

Even if this were true - which is at best debatable - the question is whether the inferior specimen of our species possess the inalienable right to reproduce? If society is to bear the costs of over-population - social welfare, medical care, daycare centers - then society has the right to regulate procreation. But does it have the right to act discriminately in doing so?

Another dilemma is whether we have the moral right - let alone the necessary knowledge - to interfere with natural as well as social and demographic trends. Eugenicists counter that contraception and indiscriminate medicine already do just that. Yet, studies show that the more affluent and educated a population becomes - the less fecund it is. Birth rates throughout the world have dropped dramatically already.

Instead of culling the great unwashed and the unworthy - wouldn't it be a better idea to educate them (or their off-spring) and provide them with economic opportunities (euthenics rather than eugenics)? Human populations seem to self-regulate. A gentle and persistent nudge in the right direction - of increased affluence and better schooling - might achieve more than a hundred eugenic programs, voluntary or compulsory.

That eugenics presents itself not merely as a biological-social agenda, but as a panacea, ought to arouse suspicion. The typical eugenics text reads more like a catechism than a reasoned argument. Previous all-encompassing and omnicompetent plans tended to end traumatically - especially when they contrasted a human elite with a dispensable underclass of persons.

Above all, eugenics is about human hubris. To presume to know better than the lottery of life is haughty. Modern medicine largely obviates the need for eugenics in that it allows even genetically defective people to lead pretty normal lives. Of course, Man himself - being part of Nature - may be regarded as nothing more than an agent of natural selection. Still, many of the arguments advanced in favor of eugenics can be turned against it with embarrassing ease.

Consider sick children. True, they are a burden to society and a probable menace to the gene pool of the species. But they also inhibit further reproduction in their family by consuming the financial and mental resources of the parents. Their genes - however flawed - contribute to genetic diversity. Even a badly mutated phenotype sometimes yields precious scientific knowledge and an interesting genotype.

The implicit Weltbild of eugenics is static - but the real world is dynamic. There is no such thing as a "correct" genetic makeup towards which we must all strive. A combination of genes may be perfectly adaptable to one environment - but woefully inadequate in another. It is therefore prudent to encourage genetic diversity or polymorphism.

The more rapidly the world changes, the greater the value of mutations of all sorts. One never knows whether today's maladaptation will not prove to be tomorrow's winner. Ecosystems are invariably comprised of niches and different genes - even mutated ones - may fit different niches.

In the 18th century most peppered moths in Britain were silvery gray, indistinguishable from lichen-covered trunks of silver birches - their habitat. Darker moths were gobbled up by rapacious birds. Their mutated genes proved to be lethal. As soot from sprouting factories blackened these trunks - the very same genes, hitherto fatal, became an unmitigated blessing. The blacker specimen survived while their hitherto perfectly adapted fairer brethren perished ("industrial melanism"). This mode of natural selection is called directional.

Moreover, "bad" genes are often connected to "desirable genes" (pleitropy). Sickle cell anemia protects certain African tribes against malaria. This is called "diversifying or disruptive natural selection". Artificial selection can thus fast deteriorate into adverse selection due to ignorance.

Modern eugenics relies on statistics. It is no longer concerned with causes - but with phenomena and the likely effects of intervention. If the adverse traits of off-spring and parents are strongly correlated - then preventing parents with certain undesirable qualities from multiplying will surely reduce the incidence of said dispositions in the general population. Yet, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. The manipulation of one parameter of the correlation does not inevitably alter it - or the incidence of the outcome.

Eugenicists often hark back to wisdom garnered by generations of breeders and farmers. But the unequivocal lesson of thousands of years of artificial selection is that cross-breeding (hybridization) - even of two lines of inferior genetic stock - yields valuable genotypes. Inter-marriage between races, groups in the population, ethnic groups, and clans is thus bound to improve the species' chances of survival more than any eugenic scheme.

About The Author

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Until recently, he served as the Economic Advisor to the Government of Macedonia.

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com; palma@unet.com.mk


MORE RESOURCES:
Empowering Latina scientists  Science Magazine

The #MeToo movement and other women's empowerment movements have raised awareness about hostile conditions for women scientists, stimulating ...


U.S. science adviser sees smaller federal role  Science Magazine

The new science adviser to President Donald Trump wants to usher in a new golden era of U.S. science—but with less gold from the federal government. Ending ...


Deal reveals what scientists in Germany are paying for open access  Science Magazine

Project Deal, a consortium of libraries, universities, and research institutes in Germany, has unveiled an unprecedented deal with a major journal ...


This Week in Science  Science Magazine

The Deccan Traps in India were a source of large-scale volcanic activity that affected the climate 66 million years ago. IMAGE: GERTA KELLER.


Astronomers discover solar system's most distant object, nicknamed “FarFarOut”  Science Magazine

For most people, snow days aren't very productive. Some people, though, use the time to discover the most distant object in the solar system. That's what Scott ...


Hachimoji DNA and RNA: A genetic system with eight building blocks  Science Magazine

DNA and RNA are naturally composed of four nucleotide bases that form hydrogen bonds in order to pair. Hoshika et al. added an additional four synthetic ...


Scientists Need to Talk to the Public  Scientific American

Recently, I gave a talk on volatile organic compounds as multitrophic messages among plants, microbes and insects at the University of Illinois at ...


The world's largest bee vanished decades ago. Now, scientists have spotted it again  Science Magazine

In 1981, the world's biggest bee went missing—again. Wallace's giant bee (above, right), which lives in the rainforests of Indonesia, is four times larger than a ...


Why do zebras have stripes? Science may finally have an answer  York Dispatch

Researchers found that fewer horseflies landed on zebra-cloaked horses than on the ones without striped coats, suggesting that zebra stripes may offer ...


7 of the most popular science books of all time  Big Think

From Darwin to Dawkins to Hawking, popular science books show the world what we know about the universe. These readable science books are a great ...


HIV drug could improve recovery after stroke  Science Magazine

Stroke treatment has been a race against time. In the hours after a stroke, the clot-busting treatment tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can limit damage to the ...


Sleep well to slow Alzheimer's progression?  Science Magazine

Although sleep disturbances are commonly reported in people with dementia (1), whether this is a cause or a consequence of the disease is unclear. Evidence ...


150 years ago, science changed forever  CNN

2019 marks 150 years since the creation of the periodic table of elements, which epitomizes our modern understanding of chemistry and of the physical world, ...


Researchers spy signs of slavery from space  Science Magazine

Doreen Boyd remembers the first time she saw a hint of slavery from space. A satellite image from 2017 of Rajasthan state in India showed a brown oval that ...


Scientists say every animal needs sleep. These fruit flies didn't get the memo  Science Magazine

Ask parents of newborns whether they think sleep is overrated and you're liable to catch a death stare. Yet some fruit flies almost never nod off, according to a ...


Ubiquitin-dependent chloroplast-associated protein degradation in plants  Science Magazine

Protein degradation is vital for cellular functions, and it operates selectively with distinct mechanisms in different organelles. Some organellar proteins are ...


Chesterfield Township Library to delve into science of winter's deep freeze  New Baltimore Voice Newspapers

Delving into the science behind this winter's deep freeze temperatures will be the key concept behind Frostology, a Michigan Science Center program coming to ...


The courage to leave  Science Magazine

“I walked out of my first Ph.D. project!” I exclaimed. I was just a few months into a new job as manager of a graduate school, sitting in my first doctoral student ...


A degenerate Fermi gas of polar molecules  Science Magazine

A dilute atomic gas cooled down to very cold temperatures can enter the so-called quantum degenerate regime, where quantum properties of the gas come to ...


EEG helps scientists predict epileptic seizures minutes in advance: Prevention: Edible acid can stabilize misfiring neurons  Science Daily

A new study shows that acetate, an acid found in some foods, may help doctors intervene when seizures are imminent. Scientists can monitor the brain activity of ...


In search of an aging antidote  Science Magazine

Chronic disease states—including diabetes, most cancers, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative syndromes—have become the leading drivers of ...


Montana legislator introduces bills to give his state its own science  Ars Technica

Two bills instruct the state to ignore the greenhouse effect and federal government.


ASU tackles range of issues at world's largest annual science meeting  Arizona State University

From the rise of artificial intelligence to the future of water, Arizona State University faculty and students discussed a slew of science topics at the annual meeting ...


Why sparks fly when you microwave grapes  Science Magazine

Physicists burned out 12 microwaves putting this trick to the test.


Tunable intrinsic strain in two-dimensional transition metal electrocatalysts  Science Magazine

Strain can modify the electronic properties of a metal and has provided a method for enhancing electrocatalytic activity. For practical catalysts, nanomaterials ...


Catalytic reductive [4 + 1]-cycloadditions of vinylidenes and dienes  Science Magazine

The Diels-Alder reaction is widely used to make six-membered rings by adding four-carbon dienes to two-carbon alkenes. It would seem straightforward to ...


Sixth-graders learning hands on science lessons at Cuyamaca Outdoor School  10News

Students from across San Diego who went to Cuyamaca Outdoor School were delighted by the snow and enjoyed learning hands on science lessons.


Madagascar: Crime threatens biodiversity  Science Magazine

Madagascar's new president, Andry Rajoelina, was elected on a promise to improve living standards for the millions who live in poverty (1). To achieve this goal, ...


Deciphering mass extinction triggers  Science Magazine

Five mass extinction events have punctuated the evolution of life on Earth, each reshaping the biosphere by ending the success of an overwhelming proportion ...


Saying this 1 sentence will make you 19 percent more likable (and most people never do it)  CNBC

Researchers call it "perspective-taking," and it involves the ability to step into another person's shoes.


Nearly half of US female scientists leave full-time science after first child  Nature.com

Research puts a number on the proportion of people leaving full-time careers in science after the birth of their first child.


'Breakneck speed' mini moon hurtles around Neptune at 20,000mph  The Guardian

Astronomers confirm orbit of tiny moon Hippocamp via multiple images from Hubble.


Ivanka Trump Retweets Praise Of Administration As 'Driver For Science,' Twitter Gags  HuffPost

Snarky tweets reminded the president's daughter about White House denials of climate change.


Regulation of predictive analytics in medicine  Science Magazine

Artificial intelligence (AI) and increased computing power have long held the promise of improving prediction and prognostication in health care (1). Now, use of ...


Rookies lead the way on House science panel  Science Magazine

A major perk of being the majority party in the U.S. Congress is getting to fill the leadership slots on every committee. For several new Democratic legislators, ...


Weekly Digest (Feb 18-Feb 22, 2019): Top Weather, Environment and Science Stories of the Week  The Weather Channel

A roundup of the week's top stories on The Weather Channel India.


Earth may be 140 years away from reaching carbon levels not seen in 56 million years  Science Daily

Total human carbon dioxide emissions could match those of Earth's last major greenhouse warming event in fewer than five generations, new research finds.


Reality check: Can cat poop cause mental illness?  Science Magazine

Science breaks down the evidence on the link between Toxoplasma gondii and mental illness.


A third of Canadians say science on vaccines isn't 'quite clear': poll  National Post

In Canada, one tenth of children are going unvaccinated, meaning 750000 have no immunity whatsoever against diphtheria, whopping cough, tetanus and ...


Foxes were domesticated by humans in the Bronze Age  EurekAlert

In the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, between the third and second millennium BC, a widespread funeral practice consisted in burying humans with animals.


Scientists uncover how high-fat diet drives colorectal cancer growth: Experimental drug candidate slows cancer progression in mouse model  Science Daily

A new study suggests that high-fat diets fuel colorectal cancer growth by upsetting the balance of bile acids in the intestine and triggering a hormonal signal that ...


The mummy of all Tutankhamun shows will land in London  The Guardian

The largest number of King Tutankhamun treasures ever to leave Egypt are heading to London for an exhibition which organisers say will never happen again.


Earliest example of animal nest sharing revealed by scientists  Science Daily

An international team of scientists has shown that fossilized eggshells unearthed in western Romania represent the earliest known nest site shared by multiple ...


A deer-sized T. rex ancestor shows how fast tyrannosaurs became giants  Science News

A newly found dinosaur called Moros intrepidus fills a hole in the evolutionary history of tyrannosaurs, helping narrow when the group sized up.


The Fishy Mystery of Lake Malawi | Science  Smithsonian.com

In the second-largest lake in Africa, fish evolution is taking place at an explosive rate. Why? Scientists are diving into the question.


AAAS: Machine learning 'causing science crisis'  BBC News

Machine-learning techniques used by thousands of scientists to analyse data are producing results that are misleading and often completely wrong.


Study blames YouTube for rise in number of Flat Earthers  The Guardian

Researchers believe they have identified the prime driver for a startling rise in the number of people who think the Earth is flat: Google's video-sharing site, ...


Massive volcanic event may have turned Earth into ‘giant snowball’, scientists say  The Independent

Ancient volcanoes may have triggered a period in Earth's history when temperatures plummeted and the planet turned into a “giant snowball”, according to ...


Climate change 'cause of most under-reported humanitarian crises'  The Guardian

Climate change was responsible for the majority of under-reported humanitarian disasters last year, according to analysis of more than a million online news ...


Derval O'Rourke gets behind the science of those Operation Transformation weighing scales  Irish Examiner

This week I'm chatting about metabolic age testing which has been a big feature on Operation Transformation this year and which is something lots of members ...


Statistician: Machine Learning Is Causing A "Crisis in Science"  Futurism

A statistician is warning that scientists are leaning on machine learning algorithms to find patterns in data where none exist.


Best girl in sciences to study applied mathematics at MIT  The New Times

Soumayya Bint Outhman from Gashora Girls Academy of Science and Technology emerged to be the best girl candidate in sciences and fourth in the whole ...


Darpa Wants to Solve Science’s Reproducibility Crisis With AI  WIRED

Social science has an image problem—too many findings don't hold up. A new project will crank through 30000 studies to try to identify red flags.


Earth's Atmosphere Is Bigger Than We Thought - It Actually Goes Past The Moon  ScienceAlert

We humans like to put labels and boundaries on things. For example, the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space is the Kármán line, the point at 100 ...


Long delays in banning trade in threatened species  Science Magazine

The harvesting of wild animals and plants for international trade affects thousands of species, and compounds ongoing extinction threats such as habitat loss ...


High-tide flooding disrupts local economic activity  Science Advances

Evaluation of observed sea level rise impacts to date has emphasized sea level extremes, such as those from tropical cyclones. Far less is known about the ...


Dynamic gating of infrared radiation in a textile  Science Magazine

Textiles trap infrared radiation, which helps keep us warm in cold weather. Of course, in hot weather, this is less desirable. Zhang et al. constructed an ...


Trump to launch artificial intelligence initiative, but many details lacking  Science Magazine

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a defining issue of our time, affecting national security, economic development, human rights, and social media—for better ...


Plastics reach remote pristine environments, scientists say  The Guardian

Scientists have warned about the impact of plastic pollution in the most pristine corners of the world after discovering chemical additives in birds' eggs in the ...


Germany's wolves are on the rise thanks to a surprising ally: the military  Science Magazine

Wolves are an impressive success story for wildlife recovery in central Europe, bouncing back from near extermination in the 20th century to a population of ...


At many river deltas, scientists are missing a major source of sea level rise  Science Magazine

For coastal communities, the sea level rise propelled by melting ice and warming oceans is bad enough. But people living on the soft, compressible sediments of ...


Neanderthals could have been long-distance killers  Science Magazine

Neanderthals were dangerous—even at a distance. A new study suggests they might have been able to nail prey with their pointy spears from up to 20 meters ...


Radar reveals a second potential impact crater under Greenland's ice  Science Magazine

Just months after revealing an impact crater the size of Washington, D.C., buried under the ice of northwestern Greenland, a team of scientists has discovered ...


Native California medicinal plant may hold promise for treating Alzheimer's: Salk scientists identify possible healing compound in Yerba santa  Science Daily

The medicinal powers of aspirin, digitalis, and the anti-malarial artemisinin all come from plants. A discovery of a potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory ...


Update: NASA declares end of Opportunity's mission  Science Magazine

*Update, 13 February, 2:10 p.m.: After more than a thousand attempts to revive the Opportunity rover, including a final unanswered command last night, NASA ...


Mice, like people, like to be rocked to sleep  Science Magazine

Forget the running wheel. If your pet mouse is an insomniac, what it really needs is a hammock. New research shows that mice, just like humans, fall asleep ...


When did kangaroos start to hop?  Science Magazine

Scientists have long wondered when the kangaroo's distinctive leap first appeared. But ancient kangaroo skeletons are so rare that the hop's origin has ...


Pictionary-playing computer connects to humans' 'deep thoughts'  Science Magazine

For decades, scientists have sought to give computers common sense—a basic understanding of the world that lets humans navigate everything from ...


NASA scientists discover oldest and coldest white dwarf star  India Today

NASA has yet again made a breakthrough research by finding the coldest and oldest white dwarf, an Earth-sized remnant of a Sun-like star that has died, ...


A 25% pay raise? That's not nearly enough, young Indian scientists say  Science Magazine

NEW DELHI—In response to months of protests and marches, the Indian government announced yesterday that it will give early-career scientists raises of up to ...


Measles cases have tripled in Europe, fueled by Ukrainian outbreak  Science Magazine

Measles cases more than tripled across Europe in 2018, and one country drove much of the surge: Ukraine. Nearly 83,000 cases of measles were reported in ...


Study reveals the hidden contributions of women to a branch of science: Decades of research papers show how female scientists' work was overlooked  Science Daily

A new study shows that it's possible to reveal women's once-hidden scientific work by analyzing decades-old research papers in the field of theoretical ...


EXCLUSIVE: Controversial experiments that could make bird flu more risky poised to resume  Science Magazine

Controversial lab studies that modify bird flu viruses in ways that could make them more risky to humans will soon resume after being on hold for more than 4 ...


Small research teams 'disrupt' science more radically than large ones  Nature.com

The disruptive contributions of small teams to science.


Birth of a black hole witnessed for first time  sciencefocus.com

Last June, astronomers noticed the appearance of a mysterious bright object in the constellation of Hercules. It remained visible for a little over two weeks, ...


Fake news on Twitter during the 2016 U.S. presidential election  Science Magazine

There was a proliferation of fake news during the 2016 election cycle. Grinberg et al. analyzed Twitter data by matching Twitter accounts to specific voters to ...


Teen zebra finches seek moms' approval for their new tunes  Science Magazine

It's hard to imagine a teen asking their mother for approval on anything. But a new study shows that male zebra finches—colorful songbirds with complex ...


The 2018 rift eruption and summit collapse of Kīlauea Volcano  Science Magazine

The Kīlauea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i erupted for 3 months in 2018. Neal et al. present a summary of the eruption sequence along with a variety of ...


Watch a maggot 'fountain' devour a pizza in 2 hours  Science Magazine

If you've got the stomach for it, you can watch 10,000 maggots demolish the above pizza in 2 hours. Now, scientists have a better sense of how these fly larvae ...


NASA picks mission to make all-sky infrared map  Science Magazine

NASA has just given the green light to a mission that will study multiple eras of cosmic history, from the earliest fractions of a second after the big bang to ...


Linking a mutation to survival in wild mice  Science Magazine

Evolution, at its core, involves changes in the frequency of alleles subject to natural selection. But identifying the target of selection can be difficult. Barrett et al.


Deadly human bone cancer found in 240-million-year-old turtle  Science Magazine

A 240-million-year-old turtle died with a type of bone cancer that still haunts the living, National Geographic reports. The ancient turtle's fossilized hind leg ...


Gum disease–causing bacteria could spur Alzheimer's  Science Magazine

Poor oral health is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. What's not clear is whether gum disease causes the disorder or is merely a result—many patients with ...


Evidence mounts that gut bacteria can influence mood, prevent depression  Science Magazine

Of all the many ways the teeming ecosystem of microbes in a person's gut and other tissues might affect health, its potential influences on the brain may be the ...


Ancient Earth rock found on the moon  Science Magazine

What may be the oldest-known Earth rock has turned up in a surprising place: the moon. A 2-centimeter chip embedded in a larger rock collected by Apollo ...


Teen builds working nuclear fusion reactor in Memphis home  Fox News

Some kids spend their time on social media. Other kids spend their time playing video games. When it comes to 14-year-Jackson Oswalt, his time is spent in a ...


Meet the geek behind Egypt's hit online science show  BBC News

How Ahmed El Ghandour's love of science led to an online show watched by millions of Egyptians.


This bat species may be the source of the Ebola epidemic that killed more than 11000 people in West Africa  Science Magazine

Scientists find part of the virus's genome in an insect-eating bat caught near a mineshaft in Liberia.


HSU Students Know Their Grass: Science Team Places First Among U.S. Universities at Plant Identification Contest  Lost Coast Outpost

A team of science majors at Humboldt State University placed first in the U.S. and third in North America at a plant identification contest held by the Society for ...


Is tourism endangering these giant lizards?  Science Magazine

Partial shutdown of Indonesia's Komodo National Park is unnecessary, scientists say.


Star Trek–like replicator creates entire objects in minutes  Science Magazine

A Star Trek–like replicator has arrived, but don't expect it to synthesize a cup of Earl Grey tea (hot) on the spot. Researchers have come up with a new 3D ...


Numerical cognition in honeybees enables addition and subtraction  Science Advances

Many animals understand numbers at a basic level for use in essential tasks such as foraging, shoaling, and resource management. However, complex ...


Physics explains how pollen gets its stunning diversity of shapes  Science News

Pollen grains sport a variety of snazzy shapes, from golf ball–like divots to prickly knobs or swirls that evoke a peppermint candy. But these myriad patterns may ...


Future Uterus (Part 1): The ultimate designer accessory - an artificial womb?  ABC News

In this mini-series, Science Friction takes you on a wild adventure at the frontiers of reproduction. Imagine a world where artificial wombs are the norm. In fact ...


Characterizing mutagenic effects of recombination through a sequence-level genetic map  Science Magazine

Genetic recombination is an essential process in generating genetic diversity. Recombination occurs both through the shuffling of maternal and paternal ...


Scientists Are Revealing The Weirdest Thing They've Done For Science, And They're Brilliant  IFLScience

Scientists are sharing on Twitter the weirdest things they've done in the name of science, offering up a fascinating glimpse into what scientists consider.


A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted by a massive black hole  Science Magazine

When a star passes close to a massive black hole (MBH), it is ripped apart by the strong tidal forces. As the resulting debris falls toward the MBH, it heats up, ...


Where on earth is North? - Science Weekly podcast  The Guardian

Earth's north magnetic pole wandering so quickly in recent decades that this week, scientists decided to update the World Magnetic Model, which underlies ...


MIT Scientists Are Making Flexible Superhero Body Armor Inspired By... Lobsters  ScienceAlert

Imagine a highly sophisticated body armor that is a tough as it is flexible, a shield that consists largely of water, but remains strong enough to prevent mechanical ...


As legal pot farms expand, so do air pollution worries  Science Magazine

Colorado plans major study of emissions from indoor growing facilities.


home | site map | Xray Photography
© 2006