Science Information

The Fertilization Process and Implications of Test Tube Babies


Through the wonders of science, infertile couples who were previously unable to bear children, due to reasons such as blocked fallopian tubes, low sperm count, low egg quantities or advanced age of the mother, are now able to conceive through in-vitro fertilization. The results are babies known as test-tube babies which are technically conceived outside the womb.

In a natural scenario, the conception of a baby occurs when the ovum, travels from the ovaries, through the fallopian tube to be fertilized by the sperm of the father during sexual intercourse. From this point on, the fertilized egg will travel down towards the uterus and during the process division of cells will occur until it reaches its final destination at the wall of the uterus. However, in the cases of block fallopian tubes, the eggs are unable to travel from the ovaries to the uterus and conception cannot happen.

Developed in the United Kingdom by Dr. Patrick Steptoe and Dr. Robert Edwards, the process of in-vitro fertilization involves removing eggs from the ovaries of the mother and combining them with the sperm of the father in a lab environment. The fertilized egg is then placed back into the uterus of the mother after 3 to 5 days and will remain there to grow till birth. Because of the low success pregnancy rate of this procedure, a few eggs are placed in the uterus to increase the odds of success. With this process, statistics have shown that the rates of multiple births have increased where 24 percent of the in-vitro fertilization births have produced twins.

The first test-tube baby, Louise Brown, who was born on the 25th July 1978, marked hope for other infertile couples to have a baby through this procedure. However, many others were concerned about the ethical issues surround this. One major area of concern was the fact that as the egg is located outside the womb for a few days while the cells multiplied before being put back inside the uterus, the health issues affecting this baby is unknown. Indeed, research has been shown that test-tube babies have a higher chance of birth defects and low birth weight, and researchers still have not been able to determine the reason for this.

Other issue of concern is that through this procedure, some of the eggs fertilized in the lab are later discarded. Does this procedure mean that the researchers are actually killing potential people? How is the line drawn in this case?

Then there is also the issue of commercial opportunities for eggs and sperms to be bought and surrogate wombs to be rented with the purpose of creating babies. This process of embryo transfer to another mother, not necessarily the same woman who had provided the eggs, is known as placing the embryo in a gestational carrier. This procedure has been becoming increasingly common through technological advancement, which has made couples including women with uterus problems, have a chance in having their baby.

Test-tube babies have really brought changes to the way in which babies are conceived and have given much hope to many who have had problems having babies through the process of . However, the downside of this are the ethical issues behind the procedure, with which still poses a big question mark and with which is still opposed by many factions.

For more details on cell biology, please visit http://www.biology-online.org/tutorials/1_cell_biology.htm/

Author's bio

Dr. Richard Waller has been helping thousands of infetile couples and gave hope to childless women since 1999 through the process of in-vitro fertilization. He is based in England.


MORE RESOURCES:
Empowering Latina scientists  Science Magazine

The #MeToo movement and other women's empowerment movements have raised awareness about hostile conditions for women scientists, stimulating ...


U.S. science adviser sees smaller federal role  Science Magazine

The new science adviser to President Donald Trump wants to usher in a new golden era of U.S. science—but with less gold from the federal government. Ending ...


Deal reveals what scientists in Germany are paying for open access  Science Magazine

Project Deal, a consortium of libraries, universities, and research institutes in Germany, has unveiled an unprecedented deal with a major journal ...


This Week in Science  Science Magazine

The Deccan Traps in India were a source of large-scale volcanic activity that affected the climate 66 million years ago. IMAGE: GERTA KELLER.


Astronomers discover solar system's most distant object, nicknamed “FarFarOut”  Science Magazine

For most people, snow days aren't very productive. Some people, though, use the time to discover the most distant object in the solar system. That's what Scott ...


Hachimoji DNA and RNA: A genetic system with eight building blocks  Science Magazine

DNA and RNA are naturally composed of four nucleotide bases that form hydrogen bonds in order to pair. Hoshika et al. added an additional four synthetic ...


Scientists Need to Talk to the Public  Scientific American

Recently, I gave a talk on volatile organic compounds as multitrophic messages among plants, microbes and insects at the University of Illinois at ...


The world's largest bee vanished decades ago. Now, scientists have spotted it again  Science Magazine

In 1981, the world's biggest bee went missing—again. Wallace's giant bee (above, right), which lives in the rainforests of Indonesia, is four times larger than a ...


Why do zebras have stripes? Science may finally have an answer  York Dispatch

Researchers found that fewer horseflies landed on zebra-cloaked horses than on the ones without striped coats, suggesting that zebra stripes may offer ...


7 of the most popular science books of all time  Big Think

From Darwin to Dawkins to Hawking, popular science books show the world what we know about the universe. These readable science books are a great ...


HIV drug could improve recovery after stroke  Science Magazine

Stroke treatment has been a race against time. In the hours after a stroke, the clot-busting treatment tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can limit damage to the ...


Sleep well to slow Alzheimer's progression?  Science Magazine

Although sleep disturbances are commonly reported in people with dementia (1), whether this is a cause or a consequence of the disease is unclear. Evidence ...


150 years ago, science changed forever  CNN

2019 marks 150 years since the creation of the periodic table of elements, which epitomizes our modern understanding of chemistry and of the physical world, ...


Researchers spy signs of slavery from space  Science Magazine

Doreen Boyd remembers the first time she saw a hint of slavery from space. A satellite image from 2017 of Rajasthan state in India showed a brown oval that ...


Scientists say every animal needs sleep. These fruit flies didn't get the memo  Science Magazine

Ask parents of newborns whether they think sleep is overrated and you're liable to catch a death stare. Yet some fruit flies almost never nod off, according to a ...


Ubiquitin-dependent chloroplast-associated protein degradation in plants  Science Magazine

Protein degradation is vital for cellular functions, and it operates selectively with distinct mechanisms in different organelles. Some organellar proteins are ...


Chesterfield Township Library to delve into science of winter's deep freeze  New Baltimore Voice Newspapers

Delving into the science behind this winter's deep freeze temperatures will be the key concept behind Frostology, a Michigan Science Center program coming to ...


The courage to leave  Science Magazine

“I walked out of my first Ph.D. project!” I exclaimed. I was just a few months into a new job as manager of a graduate school, sitting in my first doctoral student ...


A degenerate Fermi gas of polar molecules  Science Magazine

A dilute atomic gas cooled down to very cold temperatures can enter the so-called quantum degenerate regime, where quantum properties of the gas come to ...


EEG helps scientists predict epileptic seizures minutes in advance: Prevention: Edible acid can stabilize misfiring neurons  Science Daily

A new study shows that acetate, an acid found in some foods, may help doctors intervene when seizures are imminent. Scientists can monitor the brain activity of ...


In search of an aging antidote  Science Magazine

Chronic disease states—including diabetes, most cancers, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative syndromes—have become the leading drivers of ...


Montana legislator introduces bills to give his state its own science  Ars Technica

Two bills instruct the state to ignore the greenhouse effect and federal government.


ASU tackles range of issues at world's largest annual science meeting  Arizona State University

From the rise of artificial intelligence to the future of water, Arizona State University faculty and students discussed a slew of science topics at the annual meeting ...


Why sparks fly when you microwave grapes  Science Magazine

Physicists burned out 12 microwaves putting this trick to the test.


Tunable intrinsic strain in two-dimensional transition metal electrocatalysts  Science Magazine

Strain can modify the electronic properties of a metal and has provided a method for enhancing electrocatalytic activity. For practical catalysts, nanomaterials ...


Catalytic reductive [4 + 1]-cycloadditions of vinylidenes and dienes  Science Magazine

The Diels-Alder reaction is widely used to make six-membered rings by adding four-carbon dienes to two-carbon alkenes. It would seem straightforward to ...


Sixth-graders learning hands on science lessons at Cuyamaca Outdoor School  10News

Students from across San Diego who went to Cuyamaca Outdoor School were delighted by the snow and enjoyed learning hands on science lessons.


Madagascar: Crime threatens biodiversity  Science Magazine

Madagascar's new president, Andry Rajoelina, was elected on a promise to improve living standards for the millions who live in poverty (1). To achieve this goal, ...


Deciphering mass extinction triggers  Science Magazine

Five mass extinction events have punctuated the evolution of life on Earth, each reshaping the biosphere by ending the success of an overwhelming proportion ...


Saying this 1 sentence will make you 19 percent more likable (and most people never do it)  CNBC

Researchers call it "perspective-taking," and it involves the ability to step into another person's shoes.


Nearly half of US female scientists leave full-time science after first child  Nature.com

Research puts a number on the proportion of people leaving full-time careers in science after the birth of their first child.


'Breakneck speed' mini moon hurtles around Neptune at 20,000mph  The Guardian

Astronomers confirm orbit of tiny moon Hippocamp via multiple images from Hubble.


Ivanka Trump Retweets Praise Of Administration As 'Driver For Science,' Twitter Gags  HuffPost

Snarky tweets reminded the president's daughter about White House denials of climate change.


Regulation of predictive analytics in medicine  Science Magazine

Artificial intelligence (AI) and increased computing power have long held the promise of improving prediction and prognostication in health care (1). Now, use of ...


Rookies lead the way on House science panel  Science Magazine

A major perk of being the majority party in the U.S. Congress is getting to fill the leadership slots on every committee. For several new Democratic legislators, ...


Earth may be 140 years away from reaching carbon levels not seen in 56 million years  Science Daily

Total human carbon dioxide emissions could match those of Earth's last major greenhouse warming event in fewer than five generations, new research finds.


Weekly Digest (Feb 18-Feb 22, 2019): Top Weather, Environment and Science Stories of the Week  The Weather Channel

A roundup of the week's top stories on The Weather Channel India.


Reality check: Can cat poop cause mental illness?  Science Magazine

Science breaks down the evidence on the link between Toxoplasma gondii and mental illness.


A third of Canadians say science on vaccines isn't 'quite clear': poll  National Post

In Canada, one tenth of children are going unvaccinated, meaning 750000 have no immunity whatsoever against diphtheria, whopping cough, tetanus and ...


Foxes were domesticated by humans in the Bronze Age  EurekAlert

In the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, between the third and second millennium BC, a widespread funeral practice consisted in burying humans with animals.


Scientists uncover how high-fat diet drives colorectal cancer growth: Experimental drug candidate slows cancer progression in mouse model  Science Daily

A new study suggests that high-fat diets fuel colorectal cancer growth by upsetting the balance of bile acids in the intestine and triggering a hormonal signal that ...


The mummy of all Tutankhamun shows will land in London  The Guardian

The largest number of King Tutankhamun treasures ever to leave Egypt are heading to London for an exhibition which organisers say will never happen again.


Scientists solve mystery of a fish called Mary's 'virgin' birth  Science Daily

A female stickleback fish, nick-named 'Mary,' has produced offspring from eggs that appear to have been fertilized while they were still inside her, according to ...


Earliest example of animal nest sharing revealed by scientists  Science Daily

An international team of scientists has shown that fossilized eggshells unearthed in western Romania represent the earliest known nest site shared by multiple ...


A deer-sized T. rex ancestor shows how fast tyrannosaurs became giants  Science News

A newly found dinosaur called Moros intrepidus fills a hole in the evolutionary history of tyrannosaurs, helping narrow when the group sized up.


The Fishy Mystery of Lake Malawi | Science  Smithsonian.com

In the second-largest lake in Africa, fish evolution is taking place at an explosive rate. Why? Scientists are diving into the question.


AAAS: Machine learning 'causing science crisis'  BBC News

Machine-learning techniques used by thousands of scientists to analyse data are producing results that are misleading and often completely wrong.


Study blames YouTube for rise in number of Flat Earthers  The Guardian

Researchers believe they have identified the prime driver for a startling rise in the number of people who think the Earth is flat: Google's video-sharing site, ...


Massive volcanic event may have turned Earth into ‘giant snowball’, scientists say  The Independent

Ancient volcanoes may have triggered a period in Earth's history when temperatures plummeted and the planet turned into a “giant snowball”, according to ...


Climate change 'cause of most under-reported humanitarian crises'  The Guardian

Climate change was responsible for the majority of under-reported humanitarian disasters last year, according to analysis of more than a million online news ...


Derval O'Rourke gets behind the science of those Operation Transformation weighing scales  Irish Examiner

This week I'm chatting about metabolic age testing which has been a big feature on Operation Transformation this year and which is something lots of members ...


Statistician: Machine Learning Is Causing A "Crisis in Science"  Futurism

A statistician is warning that scientists are leaning on machine learning algorithms to find patterns in data where none exist.


Darpa Wants to Solve Science’s Reproducibility Crisis With AI  WIRED

Social science has an image problem—too many findings don't hold up. A new project will crank through 30000 studies to try to identify red flags.


Best girl in sciences to study applied mathematics at MIT  The New Times

Soumayya Bint Outhman from Gashora Girls Academy of Science and Technology emerged to be the best girl candidate in sciences and fourth in the whole ...


Earth's Atmosphere Is Bigger Than We Thought - It Actually Goes Past The Moon  ScienceAlert

We humans like to put labels and boundaries on things. For example, the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space is the Kármán line, the point at 100 ...


Long delays in banning trade in threatened species  Science Magazine

The harvesting of wild animals and plants for international trade affects thousands of species, and compounds ongoing extinction threats such as habitat loss ...


High-tide flooding disrupts local economic activity  Science Advances

Evaluation of observed sea level rise impacts to date has emphasized sea level extremes, such as those from tropical cyclones. Far less is known about the ...


Dynamic gating of infrared radiation in a textile  Science Magazine

Textiles trap infrared radiation, which helps keep us warm in cold weather. Of course, in hot weather, this is less desirable. Zhang et al. constructed an ...


Trump to launch artificial intelligence initiative, but many details lacking  Science Magazine

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a defining issue of our time, affecting national security, economic development, human rights, and social media—for better ...


Plastics reach remote pristine environments, scientists say  The Guardian

Scientists have warned about the impact of plastic pollution in the most pristine corners of the world after discovering chemical additives in birds' eggs in the ...


Germany's wolves are on the rise thanks to a surprising ally: the military  Science Magazine

Wolves are an impressive success story for wildlife recovery in central Europe, bouncing back from near extermination in the 20th century to a population of ...


At many river deltas, scientists are missing a major source of sea level rise  Science Magazine

For coastal communities, the sea level rise propelled by melting ice and warming oceans is bad enough. But people living on the soft, compressible sediments of ...


Neanderthals could have been long-distance killers  Science Magazine

Neanderthals were dangerous—even at a distance. A new study suggests they might have been able to nail prey with their pointy spears from up to 20 meters ...


Radar reveals a second potential impact crater under Greenland's ice  Science Magazine

Just months after revealing an impact crater the size of Washington, D.C., buried under the ice of northwestern Greenland, a team of scientists has discovered ...


Native California medicinal plant may hold promise for treating Alzheimer's: Salk scientists identify possible healing compound in Yerba santa  Science Daily

The medicinal powers of aspirin, digitalis, and the anti-malarial artemisinin all come from plants. A discovery of a potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory ...


Update: NASA declares end of Opportunity's mission  Science Magazine

*Update, 13 February, 2:10 p.m.: After more than a thousand attempts to revive the Opportunity rover, including a final unanswered command last night, NASA ...


Mice, like people, like to be rocked to sleep  Science Magazine

Forget the running wheel. If your pet mouse is an insomniac, what it really needs is a hammock. New research shows that mice, just like humans, fall asleep ...


When did kangaroos start to hop?  Science Magazine

Scientists have long wondered when the kangaroo's distinctive leap first appeared. But ancient kangaroo skeletons are so rare that the hop's origin has ...


Pictionary-playing computer connects to humans' 'deep thoughts'  Science Magazine

For decades, scientists have sought to give computers common sense—a basic understanding of the world that lets humans navigate everything from ...


NASA scientists discover oldest and coldest white dwarf star  India Today

NASA has yet again made a breakthrough research by finding the coldest and oldest white dwarf, an Earth-sized remnant of a Sun-like star that has died, ...


A 25% pay raise? That's not nearly enough, young Indian scientists say  Science Magazine

NEW DELHI—In response to months of protests and marches, the Indian government announced yesterday that it will give early-career scientists raises of up to ...


Measles cases have tripled in Europe, fueled by Ukrainian outbreak  Science Magazine

Measles cases more than tripled across Europe in 2018, and one country drove much of the surge: Ukraine. Nearly 83,000 cases of measles were reported in ...


EXCLUSIVE: Controversial experiments that could make bird flu more risky poised to resume  Science Magazine

Controversial lab studies that modify bird flu viruses in ways that could make them more risky to humans will soon resume after being on hold for more than 4 ...


Fake news on Twitter during the 2016 U.S. presidential election  Science Magazine

There was a proliferation of fake news during the 2016 election cycle. Grinberg et al. analyzed Twitter data by matching Twitter accounts to specific voters to ...


Birth of a black hole witnessed for first time  sciencefocus.com

Last June, astronomers noticed the appearance of a mysterious bright object in the constellation of Hercules. It remained visible for a little over two weeks, ...


Teen zebra finches seek moms' approval for their new tunes  Science Magazine

It's hard to imagine a teen asking their mother for approval on anything. But a new study shows that male zebra finches—colorful songbirds with complex ...


Small research teams 'disrupt' science more radically than large ones  Nature.com

The disruptive contributions of small teams to science.


The 2018 rift eruption and summit collapse of Kīlauea Volcano  Science Magazine

The Kīlauea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i erupted for 3 months in 2018. Neal et al. present a summary of the eruption sequence along with a variety of ...


Populating the periodic table: Nucleosynthesis of the elements  Science Magazine

Elements heavier than helium are produced in the lives and deaths of stars. This Review discusses when and how the process of nucleosynthesis made ...


Watch a maggot 'fountain' devour a pizza in 2 hours  Science Magazine

If you've got the stomach for it, you can watch 10,000 maggots demolish the above pizza in 2 hours. Now, scientists have a better sense of how these fly larvae ...


Linking a mutation to survival in wild mice  Science Magazine

Evolution, at its core, involves changes in the frequency of alleles subject to natural selection. But identifying the target of selection can be difficult. Barrett et al.


NASA picks mission to make all-sky infrared map  Science Magazine

NASA has just given the green light to a mission that will study multiple eras of cosmic history, from the earliest fractions of a second after the big bang to ...


Deadly human bone cancer found in 240-million-year-old turtle  Science Magazine

A 240-million-year-old turtle died with a type of bone cancer that still haunts the living, National Geographic reports. The ancient turtle's fossilized hind leg ...


Gum disease–causing bacteria could spur Alzheimer's  Science Magazine

Poor oral health is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. What's not clear is whether gum disease causes the disorder or is merely a result—many patients with ...


Evidence mounts that gut bacteria can influence mood, prevent depression  Science Magazine

Of all the many ways the teeming ecosystem of microbes in a person's gut and other tissues might affect health, its potential influences on the brain may be the ...


Ancient Earth rock found on the moon  Science Magazine

What may be the oldest-known Earth rock has turned up in a surprising place: the moon. A 2-centimeter chip embedded in a larger rock collected by Apollo ...


Meet the geek behind Egypt's hit online science show  BBC News

How Ahmed El Ghandour's love of science led to an online show watched by millions of Egyptians.


Teen builds working nuclear fusion reactor in Memphis home  Fox News

Some kids spend their time on social media. Other kids spend their time playing video games. When it comes to 14-year-Jackson Oswalt, his time is spent in a ...


This bat species may be the source of the Ebola epidemic that killed more than 11000 people in West Africa  Science Magazine

Scientists find part of the virus's genome in an insect-eating bat caught near a mineshaft in Liberia.


Is tourism endangering these giant lizards?  Science Magazine

Partial shutdown of Indonesia's Komodo National Park is unnecessary, scientists say.


HSU Students Know Their Grass: Science Team Places First Among U.S. Universities at Plant Identification Contest  Lost Coast Outpost

A team of science majors at Humboldt State University placed first in the U.S. and third in North America at a plant identification contest held by the Society for ...


Star Trek–like replicator creates entire objects in minutes  Science Magazine

A Star Trek–like replicator has arrived, but don't expect it to synthesize a cup of Earl Grey tea (hot) on the spot. Researchers have come up with a new 3D ...


Numerical cognition in honeybees enables addition and subtraction  Science Advances

Many animals understand numbers at a basic level for use in essential tasks such as foraging, shoaling, and resource management. However, complex ...


Cancer-slaying virus may fight childhood eye tumor  Science Magazine

Curing the childhood eye cancer retinoblastoma often comes at a cost. The tumor, which sprouts in the retina and primarily occurs in children under the age of 5, ...


Physics explains how pollen gets its stunning diversity of shapes  Science News

Pollen grains sport a variety of snazzy shapes, from golf ball–like divots to prickly knobs or swirls that evoke a peppermint candy. But these myriad patterns may ...


Characterizing mutagenic effects of recombination through a sequence-level genetic map  Science Magazine

Genetic recombination is an essential process in generating genetic diversity. Recombination occurs both through the shuffling of maternal and paternal ...


Scientists Are Revealing The Weirdest Thing They've Done For Science, And They're Brilliant  IFLScience

Scientists are sharing on Twitter the weirdest things they've done in the name of science, offering up a fascinating glimpse into what scientists consider.


A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted by a massive black hole  Science Magazine

When a star passes close to a massive black hole (MBH), it is ripped apart by the strong tidal forces. As the resulting debris falls toward the MBH, it heats up, ...


Where on earth is North? - Science Weekly podcast  The Guardian

Earth's north magnetic pole wandering so quickly in recent decades that this week, scientists decided to update the World Magnetic Model, which underlies ...


MIT Scientists Are Making Flexible Superhero Body Armor Inspired By... Lobsters  ScienceAlert

Imagine a highly sophisticated body armor that is a tough as it is flexible, a shield that consists largely of water, but remains strong enough to prevent mechanical ...


home | site map | Xray Photography
© 2006