Positive Effects of Carbon Dioxide for Plant Growth
Many articles have been written about the negative effects of carbon dioxide. Sick Building Syndrome, loss of concentration due to high levels of carbon dioxide, asphyxiation in breweries or wine cellars, all these things spring to mind when we hear the magic phrase carbon dioxide. Yet, perhaps today when Venus passes across the face of the Sun, we should remember that our original atmosphere consisted of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Free oxygen is something that is not really chemically possible. Yet we have it as a result of plant life busily photosynthesising and converting carbon dioxide into oxygen during daylight hours. This is the original use of solar energy!
Plants require carbon dioxide to grow and why not help them by increasing the level of carbon dioxide? Normally, this is something that is undesirable, since carbon dioxide is the original greenhouse gas, as our neighbouring planet Venus can testify. But in a controlled, genuine greenhouse environment, there is no real reason why the level of carbon dioxide should not be enhanced in some way.
Indeed, tests have shown that increasing the level of carbon dioxide in a greenhouse to 550 ppm will accelerate plant growth by 30 - 40 %. The natural level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is around 450 ppm, having increased from about 250 ppm in the last ice-age, so this slight increase may not appear significant at first sight. The point of the matter is that the level of carbon dioxide in the average greenhouse with the ventilation system closed will drop sharply due to uptake by the plants and will lie around 150 - 200 ppm if nothing is done about it. In summer the ventilation system will be open and the fresh air circulation will augment the level to a useful degree. But what about those long, cold, dark northern winters? Most commercial greenhouses will have lighting and heating systems to encourage plant growth, but you still cannot open the ventilation and allow the cold outside air into your heated greenhouse without losing all the early crops. The only real solution is to augment the natural level of carbon dioxide in some way. Where it is used, the general rule of thumb is to augment by about 1000 ppm when the sun is shining (or all the lights are on!) and keep the level around 400 ppm during times of darkness. This will require monitoring, since there are so many variable factors involved and a simple control unit using an infrared sensor will be able to keep the concentration of gas constant at all times.
Rate of consumption varies with crop, light intensity, temperature, stage of crop development and nutrient level. An average consumption level is estimated to be between 0.12 - 0.24 kg/hr/100 m2 of greenhouse floor area. The higher rate reflects the typical usage for sunny days and a fully-grown crop. This equates to roughly 150 litres of carbon dioxide per hour.
There are many processes that naturally and unavoidably produce carbon dioxide: Fermentation and combustion are two classic examples. In temperate zones it is necessary to heat a greenhouse (glasshouse is just another word for the same thing), and this heating will almost always involve the burning of fossil fuels, producing carbon dioxide. This leads to the natural urge to re-circulate the exhaust gas from the heating system into the greenhouse and so achieve a double advantage for the plants. This will require careful monitoring of the flue gas to ensure that there are at the most only traces of carbon monoxide being passed into the greenhouse. This is not only bad for the plants but also potentially lethal to the people working there! Such technology is available with gas monitors that will measure the carbon monoxide concentration continuously and have analogue outputs that can be used to regulate the burners or operate a trip to switch the unit off should problems occur. The combination of breweries with greenhouse systems is also serious business in some areas. Generally, these methods are to be approved and should really be worthy of government support. Not only are they producing crops, they are removing a pollutant that would otherwise be vented into the atmosphere.
Monitoring of the added carbon dioxide is essential, however, since high concnetrations of carbon dioxide can lead to dizziness or even unconciousness of the personnel. Some plants will require higher levels of nutrients to compensate for some of the changes that occur. Particularly tomatoes and violets are sensitive to increased levels of carbon dioxide, hence the need for constant monitoring of the ambient concentration.
Simon Fowler studied Mechanical Enineering at City University in London, UK and now works in Vienna, Austria for madur electronics, a manufacturer of infrared sensors. http://www.madur.com/
This RSS feed URL is deprecated, please update. New URLs can be found in the footers at https://news.google.com/news
Drought Worsened in Some States in 2004; 2005 will be very telling
The drought of the West appears to be the worst in over 500 years. This is what the scientists at the U.
Megaliths and Pole Flips
The changes in the earth magnetic field away from the 7.8 cycle rhythm that it has been for a long time is something that may be a result of the things man has done to the Earth.
Tactile Pressure Sensors for Future Robotics
Scientists and Robotic Researchers are attempting to design human type personal assistance robots. As they work to develop algorithms, which most resemble the thought processes of the human brain others are attempting to make them more life like thru human behavioral techniques of mirroring and facial features.
Controls - The Building Blocks of Automation
As man learns to make machines that no longer rely on animal or human power, he finds that he has to develop some means to manage and control them. Powerful machines let loosed by themselves will create havoc and destruction.
Many Sci Fi writers have discussed Earthquake predictions
Cal Tech along with the Universities in Japan are on the leading edge of this new technology and it is quickly becoming a reality. Soon we will know months in advance of an expected quake and the precise time maybe known hours or minutes before it actually comes.
How to Build a Mechanical Bullet Which Turns
A Mechanical bullet, which will turn in flight is well within our technical capabilities. The premise is to have a bullet, which is preset to turn a corner can be achieved thru a small gear setting on the bullet or a preset finger on the barrel or in the chamber which can be dialed in prior to discharge.
Mars is not hollow; is it?
Is Mars Hollow? We are pretty sure it is not, but no one can be certain however we might soon know. The reason such a question is asked is because of questions about the Earth and the time it takes for sound waves to travel through it.
Veterinary Hematology 101; 2005 Abstract
Veterinary Hematology is more than just blood cells. Blood, highly functional and truly definitive, does much more than provide for the transport of cellular metabolites and waste products.
Increasing Lightening Storm Intensity and Direction Control of Strikes
Using four UAVs in formation with one C-130 Hercules Aircraft or 747 with onboard laser:http://www.de.
Weather Control and Creation to Use as a Screen for Troop Advancement
Creating a Hurricane using a Space based laser array to heat up surface waters when conditions are right. By using a tropical storm system and super heating the water in the path and then in a counter clock wise direction if in the Northern Hemisphere or Clock-wise if in the Southern Hemisphere because;"A hurricane is an immense circulating storm, an intense case of a class of weather systems called tropical cyclones.
Trojan World War
TROJAN WORLD WAR: - Homer said there were nineteen battles and we know there was a 400 year dark age that followed this enigmatic period which has almost been immortalized in fairy tales about wooden horses and fair maidens. We have given evidences of white men in the Americas at places like Poverty Point and the mouth of the Amazon (there is much more in the 'mysteries' section) as well as allover the world.
CREATION OF ANIMATE FROM INANIMATE: - We have touched upon some scientific dry wells and frauds already. The idea of cold fusion and perpetual motion that the Utah researchers may not have achieved was just dealt with: but a recent report showing a Utah student using Farnsworth's old designs is another example that makes me think Cold Fusion is going to be a reality.
How Do Cities Grow?
You see the cities in America started where there was a river and small populations sprung up, then the railroad steam engines needed a place to fill up the water. Eventually the towns got larger and grew near the rail stations.
Medical Miracle or Mistake?
Fundamental elements of life and the aspects of cloning bring dramatic advancement to the scientific and medical community; however, is this fast-paced artificial reproduction an intrusion of Nature or a doorway to infinite, medical cures?In lieu of scientific developments in the biological mainstream, the human intervention of life and it's natural state are of utmost concern. Questions are being raised as to what constitutes life produced naturally into this world as opposed to man-made biocreationism.
Tunneling Concepts for Advanced Warfare
I propose research be done to make unmanned tunneling machines to help in warfare. Today more than ever we see the problems with urban warfare.
Debunking the Debunker
In History and Science:INSPIRATIONAL COMMENTS:"Everybody was glad that I was living; but as I lay there thinking about the wonderful place where I had been and all that I had seen, I was very sad; for it seemed to me that everybody ought to know about it, but I was afraid to tell, because I knew that nobody would believe me. - John G.
The Bermuda Triangle and Antarctica
The art or science of metallurgy is vital to the social structures surrounding all esoteric beliefs. They are the most tangible items of the cosmic soup that are possibly drawn to certain Earth Energy Grid locations as we shall see.
Does the Earth Have Hollow Areas Inside it?
Some skeptics of the geology text books we had in school theorize that the Earth maybe hollow. They say; the Earth is probably hollow and since it has had 5.
Transfer Technologies and Advances in Future Combat
Transfer Technologies and Advances in Future CombatThe human visual ability is unique and superb as Earth Species go. But we cannot see everything.
The Impact of Efficient Epistemologies on Algorithms
In recent years, much research has been devoted to the refinement of gigabit switches; nevertheless, few have constructed the synthesis of neural networks. The notion that cryptographers connect with large-scale theory is generally considered appropriate.
|home | site map | Xray Photography|