DNA Testing Has Changed Everything
Since its discovery 20 years ago, the use of DNA for human identity and relationship testing has emerged as a powerful tool in both civil and criminal justice systems. DNA testing can reveal whether two or more individuals are related as well as determining the nature of their relationship. Today, it is possible to identify people by a single hair, as well as obtain information about their gender and ethnic background, and, within the next couple of years, identify their age.
Before the advent of DNA testing, human identity testing was largely carried out through blood typing. DNA analysis has now superseded blood testing and is the most accurate method currently available for human identification.
The possibility that DNA could be used for human identity and relationship testing had been discussed from the time DNA was first revealed as the molecule which makes people unique. Yet, it was not until the discovery of DNA fingerprinting by Prof. Alec Jeffreys (now Sir Alec) of Leicester University in 1984 when the first practical testing system became available. As with conventional fingerprinting, where various loops and whorls are compared between two fingerprints, DNA testing relies on comparing certain DNA features called DNA markers between two individuals. If DNA patterns between the samples are identical, then they are likely to come from the same person. If the profiles are not identical but big similarities are observed, then the samples most probably come from related individuals. The degree of the similarity between DNA profiles is a representation of the degree of relatedness between people.
Currently, DNA testing is routinely used for both criminal and non-criminal applications. However there is a major difference between DNA testing for civil and for criminal cases. For civil cases, DNA testing is predominantly used to determine relationship between individuals while for criminal cases a crime scene stain has to be matched to the suspect.
In non-criminal legal practice, DNA testing is used primarily for immigration and child support cases. In 2004, more than 7,000 DNA tests were conducted for these purposes in the UK. Where no reliable documentary evidence is available, DNA testing can assist in determining varying degrees of relatedness between individuals concerned, as well as individual's ethnic background.
The first time DNA testing was used for identity purposes was in the landmark immigration case Sarbah vs. Home Office (1985). In this case, DNA testing was used to prove the mother-son relationship between Christiana Sarbah and her son Andrew. Now, the Home Office accepts DNA testing as a virtually unquestionable proof of relatedness. The results will normally (although not invariably) provide conclusive evidence as to whether individuals in question are related as alleged.
UK Child Support Agency extensively uses DNA testing for establishing who the biological parent of the child is for purposes of providing child maintenance and support. Child support is one the main areas of non-criminal DNA testing.
Child adoption is another area where DNA testing is widely applied. Currently, UK adoption agencies adopt children into families which match their ethnic background. Sometimes, it is difficult to determine the ethical background of the child and here DNA testing can help. People of different races and ethnic groups have common facial and other features which are typical for this particular race or group. The same is also true for their genetic characteristics. Various racial and ethnic groups have genetic markers specific to these groups. When analysing these markers, it is possible to tell the proportion of individual's ancestors who came from specific ethnic groups. It is, however, impossible to pinpoint at what stage the particular ancestors contributed their DNA and also their number. For example, the results of ethnicity DNA testing can show that an individual has 20% of markers specific to northern Europe, 50% to the Middle East, 10% to the Mediterranean and 20% to sub-Saharan Africa. Using this information the family with the closest ethnicity to the child can be chosen.
Avi comes from an international business background with Citibank where he specialised in managing projects in London, Europe, South America and Asia Pacific. In 2004 he was awarded the prestigious Shell Live Wire Entrepreneur of the Year award for his business. Working closely with the charities and various media outlets Avi strives to increase public awareness as to the benefits of DNA testing and the continuing impact that technological advances will have on all our lives.
Learn more about DNA forensic testing or how you can receive your own free home paternity test kit.
This RSS feed URL is deprecated, please update. New URLs can be found in the footers at https://news.google.com/news
Here's the sexual harassment report that felled a famed geneticist—and his defense - Science Magazine
Telescopes - Principle of Operation and Factors that Affect Its Properties
Telescopes are devices that are used to view the distant objects. They find its use in astronomy and physics.
MAVs, UAVs, and Insect Flight Characteristics
MAVs and UAVs and Insect Flight Characteristics seem to have a lot in common. Millions of years of evolution in nature seem to have been one of the greatest engineering schools around.
New Energy Bill: Reducing Our Dependence on Foreign Oil
The U. S.
Tactile Pressure Sensors for Future Robotics
Scientists and Robotic Researchers are attempting to design human type personal assistance robots. As they work to develop algorithms, which most resemble the thought processes of the human brain others are attempting to make them more life like thru human behavioral techniques of mirroring and facial features.
Submarine Propulsion and Internet web sources
Let us discuss the patent for the Submarine, which is now in the public domain, not that any foreign governments ever cared since they have been building them for years. Since my Grandfather built the first Ring Gyro at Stanford Research years back, I think it wise to discuss these things in a modern context.
Cloaking a UAV in Flight
If you will recall the Klingon Space Craft and Warship cloaked it's self as it attacked the USS Enterprise under Captain James T. Kirk.
Humans and Bees Go Back a Long Way
The ancient history of of man and bees has been writen about for thousands of years. Specifically the human history and the use of Bee's Wax is truly fascinating.
Aerodynamics of a Flying Disk or Flying Sphere
Aerodynamics of a flying sphere. It has been said that in the future we maybe flying around anti-gravity type spheres, but this does not mean it will not have to deal with relative wind in our own atmosphere.
Composite Materials in Ships, Pipelines, Liners and Aircraft
One future problem, which has not sufficiently been addressed, is that of the fumes and smoke created when composite material burns. Composite material is a truly great human achievement in material science, however as we use this material in more and more places we need to be acutely aware of the risks and potential consequences of their use.
Einstein Half Dead
100 years ago Albert Einstein developed his Relativity Theory of physics that claimed that the universe is actually based on a space-time-gravity continuum (a non-mechanical version of Rene Descartes' earlier mechanical ether theory) and with time as variable and relative.Einstein believed that his theory disproved "all of Isaac Newton's physics theory", and that "Newton's theory" had disproved all earlier physics theories.
I am being allowed time out to raise a subject that is dear to my heart (I normally market web sites!).Is there life out there? Are we alone? How did we get here?These are the big questions.
If we are having difficulty getting recruits into the army; lets hire some robots? General Patton's famous quote goes "?an army moves on it's stomach" and if you look at the needs of humans to complete a mission they require much in the way of logistical support, where as robots do not, sure some, but much less and we are not just talking about chaplains, psyche councilors, medics, recruiters, human resource personnel and cooks. Any component under the Joint Chiefs is full of a complexity of needs.
Electrical Industrys Protection - Destruction for Good
Destruction! Blow Up! Eliminate! These are not pleasant words!Unfortunately, when it comes to safety we have no other choices. In the electrical industry, fuses are destroyed in order to protect lives or property.
Using Mosquito MEMS to Collect DNA Samples
Soon scientists will have scaled down robotic insects. This is a good thing and most of this technology is being funded for Department of Defense uses as they will have a killer application there indeed.
Eugenics and the Future of the Human Species
"It is clear that modern medicine has created a serious dilemma ..
Electric Power Production From Magnetic Tapes
ATHENS - GREECE, -- An individual person called Basil Dimitropoulos, who is a graduate Electrical Engineer with specialization in Magnetic Recording Applications, has long announced that he developed a project that concerns Electric Power Production From Magnetic Tapes. This electromotive system affects directly the Global Home Appliances Industry and Transportation Industry, resulting in portable and mobile power supplies for Household Devices and Electric Vehicles.
Tsunami is a Japanese term that describes a large seismically generated sea wave which is capable of considerable destruction in certain coastal areas, especially where underwater earthquakes occur.In Japanese, "Tsunami" means "Harbor Wave" or "Wave In The Harbor" It is now internationally accepted as the term that defines a "Seismic Seawave.
Glyco Nutrients & Stem Cell Production
During the speach, Dr. Reg McDaniel talked about first seeing new stem cells in the peripheral blood of clients using glyconutrients many years ago and not recognizing these cells as stem cells.
Servicing Missions to the Hubble Space Telescope
The Hubble Space Telescope received its first Service Mission in December 1993. The missions most important objective was to install two devices to fix the Hubble Telescope's vision problem .
Dream Therapy and Learning thru Human Hibernation
Want to learn a new language? Would you like to earn a PhD in Physics; perfect your backstroke tennis swing, golf finesse or fly-fishing techniques, while you sleep? While, your immune system catches your body back up on your lack of exercise, fitness and proper diet? How about if I told you, that you most likely will shed about 20-25 lbs of extra weight while all this is going on? Well, if we further develop our sleep research, human hibernation studies and mind or brain advances we will be able to do all this and more in the near future, perhaps less than 5-years.Let me tell you about a few of the latest new rapidly approaching and potentially converging technologies, which will make all this possible.
|home | site map | Xray Photography|