Get Hot on Combustion
Energy in the form of heat is obtained when fuel is burnt in air. The release of this heat energy can be slow or can be very rapid.
When fuel oil is sprayed as a fine mist in the boiler burners, it is able to burn at a relatively slow rate. When fuel is sprayed into the cylinders of diesel engines, the fuel burns in such a rapid rate that explosions occur. Fortunately, these explosions are protected from persons as these engines are called internal combustion engines.
Whatever type of combustion, it is a chemical reaction between carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and oxygen.
C + O2 = CO2
Air consists of 77% Nitrogen and 23% Oxygen by mass. For a particular design of combustion air, the theoritical oxygen multiplied by 100/23 will give the theoritical air required.
How do you measure a good combustion. The percentage of Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide will tell us whether the combustion is good or not good.
The lower the Oxygen content in the exhaust gas, the better the combustion. It means that the Oxygen has been fully utilized for burning. It also means that the fuel air ratio is set properly. Too much excess air is no good because the heat generated will be lost through the exhaust trunking.
Boilers are able to achieve a good combustion. Oxygen content percentage of up to 5% or lower can be achieved.
Internal combustion engines have a lot of excess air because mixing of the combustible mixture is a challenge for them. Furthermore, the combustion is meant to provide the power to drive the pistons.
The burning of sulphur in the fuel is a problem for combustion equipment. This is because the byproducts of combustion will create sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide. These will react with the water, also a byproduct of combustion of Hydrogen to form sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid.
SO3 + H2O = H2SO4
However, the effects of corrosion, called low temperature corrosion can be avoided by keeping the temperature above the dewpoint. That means to keep the exhaust temperature high so that water droplets will not form on the exhaust ducts.
Folks, get hot!
Until next time?
"Attract CUSTOMERS With Smells!"
Irresistible smells of pheromone fragrances draws on the basic instincts of persons. Make use of nature's attractant! And discover the power of fragrant attraction in your business world! http://www.free-marine.com/linklovescent.htm
Many years of working experience in Marine, Facilities, Construction has given the author material for writing e-books and articles related to engineering, and management. Subscribe to facworld ezine at mailto:email@example.com More information at http://www.free-marine.com and http://www.free-engineering.com
This RSS feed URL is deprecated, please update. New URLs can be found in the footers at https://news.google.com/news
Here's the sexual harassment report that felled a famed geneticist—and his defense - Science Magazine
Should We Allow The Genetic Modification of Insects?
Some scientists argue over creation, intelligent design and evolution. Others argue did man create god or did god create man.
UAV Stealth and Radar Energy Capture for Power and Propulsion
A Feasible Idea for UAV Flight, Possible Research and Development Test; UAV Stealth and Radar Energy Capture for Power and Propulsion to drive your enemy crazy.Powering a UAV, while being able to reuse it, increasing it's payload takes a lot of trial and error and engineering and research, which of course costs lots of money.
Shamans and Their Documented Abilities
Many Shamans will go into a sweat house to get their premonitions, here is a make shift sweat house used by such native Indians;http://www.nativeradio.
If we are having difficulty getting recruits into the army; lets hire some robots? General Patton's famous quote goes "?an army moves on it's stomach" and if you look at the needs of humans to complete a mission they require much in the way of logistical support, where as robots do not, sure some, but much less and we are not just talking about chaplains, psyche councilors, medics, recruiters, human resource personnel and cooks. Any component under the Joint Chiefs is full of a complexity of needs.
UAV Acoustic Apparatus for Insect Swarming Stimulus, part two
UAV Acoustic Apparatus for Insect Swarming Stimulus, part two; Using Locust swarms to attack our enemies using directional sound to guide them.These plagues and swarms seem to occur randomly, although we do know the migrations are due to over population in an area.
Science Fiction by Arthur C Clarke
It is difficult to have a discussion with someone about science fiction if they are not familiar with the works of Arthur C Clarke. The concepts are not too awfully difficult to understand and not nearly as complex as reading Issac Asimov for the science fiction novice and anyone can enjoy Mr.
Saving Private Ryan in Iraq - Stop the Bleeding
I propose that we give soldiers an ultra thin material, which will either be an undergarment to their uniform or incorporated as a liner within that uniform. This liner in the uniform will be laced with a Blood Coagulation Product.
Many Sci Fi writers have discussed Earthquake predictions
Cal Tech along with the Universities in Japan are on the leading edge of this new technology and it is quickly becoming a reality. Soon we will know months in advance of an expected quake and the precise time maybe known hours or minutes before it actually comes.
Fire Escape System Concept
What if in the event of a fire the building system started putting out instructions using sound waves of the best possible escape route? Using the pictures on the wall and windows to guide trapped occupants and guide them to the safest exit? It is all possible now due to an old technology which is now being used thru a transfer into the public domain. Smoke inhalation is the number one cause of death in fires.
Small Attack Submarines, Which Turn Into Hydrofoils and Fly
We propose single man underwater vehicles (attack submarines), which have inflatable Airbags using CO2 cartridges for rapid ascent. The design of these vehicles will encompass bended material, which makes rings underneath resembling typical designs of small hydrofoils.
Building a Single Unit CO2 Laser Grid
When using a CO2 Laser to shoot down an incoming projectile, which enters a safety zone, it will be necessary to hold the laser on the target for about 5 seconds or more. To do this we must be able to shoot the laser in a grid, therefore if the projectile or aircraft or guided missile or even a UAV takes evasive action such as a high- speed high "G" 90 degree turn you can still register a kill on the target.
Where Do Insects Go When It Rains?
Have you ever wondered where insects go when it rains? We have all seen a poor unfortunate spider washed down the plughole so we know how vulnerable they are to rushing water. Surely then, isn't rain one of their worst enemies?Sorry, but this is one of these "it depends" things.
Marine News - Summer 2004 - Our Ocean Environment
Our oceans are home to many marine mammals, fish, turtles, corals and others. The delicate balance between man and the ocean is constantly being challenged by the demands of our society.
The History and Achievements of the Hubble Telescope
The Hubble Telescope is famous worldwide for its amazing images of the universe. Congress in 1977 voted to fund a project to construct the Hubble.
Making Diamonds Using The Earth
We can make diamonds using the Earth's inner forces, extreme pressure and heat. We simply send Carbon Blocks in tubes, which have been drilled into the Earth's Mantle.
Mini UAV and MAV Power Plants
A set up of harnessed Lithium Polymer Cells can be the answer to mini-UAVs. When we compare the voltage output and capacity of wire harness systems and compare the weight of LiPoly cells to NiCd or NiMH cells you can achieve extremely better results than the average fuel and output on a ounce per ounce basis.
Locusts To Help Make Energy From Bio Waste, part I
Plagues of Locusts through out history are well documented. In fact they are even documented back as far as the times of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs.
Veterinary Hematology 101; 2005 Abstract
Veterinary Hematology is more than just blood cells. Blood, highly functional and truly definitive, does much more than provide for the transport of cellular metabolites and waste products.
Secrets of The Mathematical Symmetry of Nature and Patterns of Erosion
As scientists and theorists study patterns, design, chaos, complexity they often turn to nature for examples and there is plenty of examples in nature too. The stripes on a zebra, patterns on a butterfly, spider webs, leafs on a tree, scales on a fish, seashells, brain waves, muscle structure, texture of granite, spider webs, Earth cycles, waves on the ocean, wind flow, clouds in the sky, Rainbows, Solar System, structure of a meteorite and even DNA itself.
I am being allowed time out to raise a subject that is dear to my heart (I normally market web sites!).Is there life out there? Are we alone? How did we get here?These are the big questions.
|home | site map | Xray Photography|