There is a secret zoo that runs encaged along the roads.
They are liquid, semi-visible goliaths that rage through the streams and chunks of ordinary traffic, with the effervescent tendrils of mile-long tales whipping behind them like Chinese dragons. Though composed of hundreds of pounds of steel, glass and plastic, they are able to pass through solid objects. They are bound by the laws of the highway, but not by any conventional notion of time or space.
They are Aggregate Traffic Animals: a menagerie of emergent beasts drawn from the interacting behaviours of many individual human beings driving many individual cars with many individual goals, their collective activity giving rise to something with greater presence, power and purpose than the sum of its constituents. They take on a host of different forms, each to serve a different end.
They are real, and they drive among us.
In his introduction to The Extended Phenotype (Oxford University Press, 1982) enthusiastic evolutionary biology cheerleader and Commodore-hacking pop-science guru Richard Dawkins invites us to consider the Necker Cube Illusion: a two-dimensional image representing two interlocked three-dimensional blocks in which the foreground and background can seem to flip back and forth as the brain fruitlessly seeks the "true" interpretation of the depicted space. This is Dawkins' starting point for a thought experiment in which he blurs the lines between species, their genes and the environment, calling into question the traditional boundaries drawn through biological systems to identify the relevant level of study. To wit, to wank:
We look at life and begin by seeing a collection of interacting individual organisms. We know that they contain smaller units, and we know that they are, in turn, parts of larger composite units, but we fix our gaze on the whole organisms. Then suddenly the image flips. The individual bodies are still there; they have not moved, but they seem to have gone transparent...
In other words, if you are able to de-emphasise the organism itself you are free to appreciate the idea of beaver ponds as artificial lakes generated by beaver genes, or to see a spider's web as an arrangement of silk drawn by DNA. By extending the lines with which we bound the traditional phenotype, we define new organisms, merging technology and individuals into communities the same way that ancient micro-organisms interacting inside bilipid membranes fell into symbiotic lockstep dances to found the first stable cells.
Organelles, cells, bodies, herds: at which level we discern the animal is purely a matter of focus.
This idea of the emergent animal or "super-organism" is hardly particular to Dawkins: William Morton Wheeler remarked on the idea in his 1911 paper "The Ant Colony as an Organism" in a treatment that is every bit as cogent but with considerably less otaku chic than Kevin Kelly's printed-soundbyte manifesto on hive complexity, Out of Control (Perseus Books, 1994). In the words of Kelly:
There is nothing to be found in a beehive that is not submerged in a bee. And yet you can search a bee forever with cyclotron and fluoroscope, and you will never find a hive.
So too can you examine a driver in a car and know nothing about the greater animal in which they both participate when the circumstances are right. Some of the applicable forces can be seen most clearly in the rarified environment of the professional race course, as explored by David Ronfeldt, a senior social scientist at RAND, in his 2002 paper Social Science at 190 MPH on NASCAR's Biggest Superspeedways, where fleeting moments of co-operation between rivals are necessary in order to win. Ronfeldt focuses in particular on the phenomenon of draft line formation, which is similar to the way flocking birds can share aerodynamic advantage. Like iron filings in a magnetic field, the large-scale distribution of opportunistically partnering cars are drawn into predictable macro-scale patterns across the speedway:
Once the racers sort themselves out - after ten to twenty laps - it is common to see a single draft line of four to seven cars running in front, pursued a hundred or so yards back by a second line of cars, all another hundred or so yards ahead of a large pack of cars that may still be running in parallel lines but are doing more dicing than drafting...Cars that run alone, often stuck dangerously between two draft lines, will appear to drift irrevocably backward.
Freed of the bonds of racing's formalism, the Aggregate Traffic Animals are born, rooted in transient symbioses between individual patches of drivers that will crystalise into the organs of the beast. But the circumstances have to be just right for one to emerge. The unholy Hieronymus Bosch-style concert of homicidal applied-shadenfreude that may characterise your urban, intra-urban or sub-urban driving experience is not ripe ground for ATA growth: too frothy.
The sociological and scatological dances of the megalopolis rushhour, too, are beyond the scope of this article, and are at any rate most likely best explored with deep computer simulations using high-tech cellular automata tools with average driver profiles linked to real-world statistics of roadway usage coupled with an army of ten thousand angry ax-wielding orcs battling an equal number of obedient clonetroopers.
Rather, this field is perfect fodder for the amateur ethologist, observing phenomena with a keen eye, an open mind and a sharp pencil. And while much has been written about manipulating traffic waves, the dynamics of traffic jams and phase-transitions in traffic density, very little time has been devoted to the observation and cataloguing of persistent multi-car zoomorphia.
The author first became aware of the existence of ATAs while making his way through the hinterland of Canada on a long, mid-winter solo drive in a decrepit Dodge Charger with no functioning radio. Due to his dangerous penchant for immersive daydreaming in the absence of external stimuli, he began to parasite his driving decisions by locking in behind another car with comparable speed ambitions. By reserving a sliver of awareness for tracking the red brake lights of the "lead" car for changes in speed or direction, the author was able to comfortably enjoy his trance while a hefty burden of road awareness was outsourced to the other driver, causing the front car to function as a sort of early warning mechanism for changing conditions (including the Mounties' speed-traps).
The notion resurfaced while the author was wrestling a dented Volkswagen Rabbit rental down a twisting, pot-holed two-lane jungle highway through the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. As the journey began he found himself hedged inside a short parade of other tourists, all driving their rental cars out of the airport at around the same time at a hesitant pace, breaking frequently to process the unfamiliar leafy darkness ahead. Fearing injury, the author laterally-leapfrogged the indecisive parade and drove on into the murk alone. Remembering his success in the far north, he latched onto the back of a local vehicle (a home-modded convertible Beetle carrying ten people, standing room only), using its varying speed as an indicator of road conditions. Unexpectedly, this move was noticed by several of the other tourists, who began to fight to separate themselves from the melee and join the newer, more surefooted pack that was rapidly pulling ahead...
By the time the author had reached his exit the impromptu fleet of vehicles had become a persistent, homeostatic phenomenon. The fleet had quickly learned to manipulate the spacing between its components in order to remain permeable to faster moving local traffic while defending its integrity against more disruptive external vehicles. Pulses of communication signifying when the passing lane was clear rippled down the chain through a conscientious leaning into the gravel shoulder, assisting in the process of expectorating invaders. Several of the original tourist vehicles ended up being swapped out for other vehicles without rocking the boat. Later on, even the leader was swapped out for another experienced local car.
It was a fetching game, contributing to the welfare of all of its players in an interesting way, but it was not a true ATA. It was too conscious a contrivance to be anything more than a delightful spontaneous social event.
You see, a distributed animal with human components can be very sensitive to perturbations from within. It is only when the conflicting threads of goals, reasoning and competition between individual human minds are quietened into the background noise that the soil can truly be ripe to raise a complex beast. When drivers can fall into a semi-hypnotic state and their herd instincts take over, the seeds are laid for something greater.
While there are thousands of traffic animal breeding grounds along the paved networks of the world, only one driving region has been extensively explored at this time, largely due to budgetary considerations.
The TransCanada Highway is a nearly ideal environment for the production of large-scale ATA phenomena, due in great part to the simplicity of its shape: all cars are moving either westbound or eastbound, streamlining the goals of the drivers in much the same way as the shape of the Daytona superspeedway encourages drafting partnerships (see above). Also, because there are long stretches through lonely wilderness and semi-tundra, nascent traffic animals have a long period in which to mature before coming against obstacles like influxes of new cars or navigating around towns; and because the highway wends its way directly through most of Canada's major cities, it provides a handy litmus test for the homeostatic integrity of a given specimen simply by observing whether or not it makes it through to the other side of the urban area intact.
While daytime ATA formation is not rare, it is under the cover of darkness that development can proceed in a comparatively unfettered fashion. This is due in large part to the more abstract, disconnected experience of interacting with other vehicles merely as points of coloured light. Familiar prejudices and stereotypes -- potential sources of destructive competition -- are smoothed out by the shadows. At least on the basis of visual impressions, a Volvo and a Camaro can enter a system as peers.
Diminished visibility resulting from mild to moderate weather conditions can have a similar equalising effect, but when conditions become too severe drivers tend to clump into packs for safety, leading to pseudo-ATA fleets that are all too conscious social events (as in the Quintana Roo experience).
Show me an autumn stretch of prairie transcontinental highway at twilight, and I will show you the secret zoo of the road.
The most basic form of multi-car life is the Asipetal Caterpillar, also known as a worm. Worms begin when a stable solo vehicle spawns a linear, single-lane chain of vehicles composed of loose monomers joining at the rear (a closely related, but dysfunctional, construct known as an Acropetal Caterpillar grows by adding vehicles to the front of the chain, generally leading to destructive diffusion or autolysis). Short, lithe worms are the fundamental building blocks of healthy ATA tissue. Perverse, long-form worms are the seeds of congestion and death.
The second atomic element of ATA tissue stands in stark contrast to the worm, for it is a fleeting thing, and when it takes concrete form at all it is often manifested as a single car. The Apparent Coxswain is a vehicle that appears, to the conscious or semi-conscious mind of one or more drivers, to be a leader of the worm. When the Apparent Coxswain changes lanes, there is a higher probability that a majority of the worm will follow suit than if the change were initiated by a less trusted vehicle. In many cases each car in a worm perceives the car immediately ahead of it to be the Apparent Coxswain, leading to domino-effect lane-transitions; such formations have high homeostatic integrity because of the worm's ability to "find a new head" should one Apparent Coxswain be lost to the currents. (Please note: the Apparent Coxswain should not be confused with the Virtual Coxswain or the Napoleonic Coxswain, discussed below.)
Formations that achieve such integration become Cholingers: Asipetal Caterpillars with tightly-integrated internal feedback systems of Apparent Coxswains, capable of transmitting information from tip to tail with high fidelity. Cholingers can slither to avoid torn tyres on the road, twitch around slow-moving vehicles, and even slip through packs of alien worms, wild axenes and other traffic froth to arrive on the other side intact.
Of course, not all Cholingers slip through the strangers: sometimes they interact.
Every Cholinger is either benthic or pelagic. Benthic Cholingers travel at a similar rate to the currents of the road, while Pelagic Cholingers travel at a dissimilar rate when compared to other traffic (typically a faster rate). It is possible, however, for a benthic line to be picked up and carried along by a pelagic cousin, leading to a coupled form. This is the first real Aggregate Traffic Animal we will meet tonight: a bilaterally asymmetrical diageotrope known as the Epiphysian Cyclosalp.
Within the body of the Cyclosalp the individual Cholingers are transmuted into a pair of Librigenates -- stretchy, free-flowing tissue that is bounded in space by the relationship with its partner, the accelerating pelagic lobe sliding forward and the steady benthic lobe catching up in a slow-motion slingshot, compressing and expanding between the loose, senseless clumps of other cars. This accordion-like effect might initially seem to be a force tearing the animal apart, rending pelagic from benthic -- and this is indeed what might happen in too rarified an atmosphere -- but when presented with obstacles of any kind, the Librigenates that comprise the Cyclosalp fall back on their Cholinger heritage of local integrity, crystallising en masse to navigate the hazard.
Unfettered, the Epiphysian Cyclosalp is like half a butterfly, its riparian body gilded by a slowly flapping wing of accelerating, gliding Librigenates ebbing and flowing in a stately round. Its insides whorl as partners switch places, benthic turning briefly pelagic, pacer cars joining a rippling pulse of local inertia forward, headlights cross-sweeping.
It is beyond the scope of this article to detail the myriad circumstances that provide seed for the profitable entanglement of multiple Cyclosalpic streams. So diverse are the possibilities that we could fill a Biblical tome without scratching the surface, without revealing the common thread of simplicity upon which the complexity hinges. Suffice to say the larger clade includes such varied forms as the whiplashing Epinastic Tricyclosalp, the many-fingered Dicyclosalp Fimbriatum, and the diaphanous, fleeting wonder of the mile-long Merosporangic Super-Cyclosalp...
Of course, not all Asipetal Caterpillars grow up to become stately Cholingers; instead, they lock into Lego-like bricks of uniform properties called Pycnoblastoids. While short-lived Apiculate Pycnoblastoids (in which the Apparent Coxswain is always the most forward car) are more common, it is the more flexible Laxiflorous Pycnoblastoid (in which the Apparent Coxswain is any car except that most forward) that lives a more fruitful life.
For instance, consider the case of a typical composite entity like a Tripycnoblastic Oomycotum, in which independent pycnoblasts jockey for position internally directly or by proxy through one or more Napoleonic Coxswains (that is, drivers who suffer from the delusion that they are single-handedly responsible for steering/leading their local sub-structure). The domino-line behaviour of an Apiculate Pycnoblastoid makes it too brittle to survive the stresses of being permeated by a competing pycnoblast, whereas the comparatively elastic structure of the Laxifloroid -- imparted due to the inherent time delay involved in co-ordinating with a mid-fleet Apparent Coxswain -- retains a perfect balance of rigidity and looseness, riding a line between orchestration and dissolution that makes composite forms like Oomycota possible.
Pycnoblastic tissue is unusual in that it makes use of some level of awareness on the part of the driver that they are participating in a formation (though drivers are only likely to be aware of the local level of structure). When this awareness reaches a certain level the composite entity is usually destroyed by internal stresses, but occasionally a dissolving multi-pycnoblast will emit a stream of highly energised vehicles -- the Apheresoid Lirellate, a concentrated apiculatoid pycnoblast flung free from the miasma of death to rocket away, using for a coxswain the abandoned carcass itself.
...These are but the fringes of the zoo, the tip of the iceberg.
We have not even touched on the sensitive antennae of the Stipitate Phototaxites fringed with Virtual Coxswains, pseudo-lead cars ready to be sacrificed to trip any trap, the chaotic wrath of the Biflagellate Ableptic Figmo and the fate of the cystidial flotsam locked within them; the weird rhythms of the Cacospysic Super-Barbicanoids and their elaborate dance of shifting coxswains, the majesty of the motorcycle-based Raging Fallaxoid; the menagerie of endless cancers that can grow from unexpectorated papillic granulomae, from cataracts of geriatric nektons, or from service-stations with badly planned driveways.
The study of a new order of life is not without its risks, both professional (in terms of reputation) and practical (in terms of being maimed by mis-navigated vehicles). The amateur automotive ethologist must not only have keen skills of observation, but also the fortitude to persevere despite the slings and arrows of dubious dissenters. Like Leeuwenhoek's controversial animalcules and Pasteur's superstition-defying microbes, there will always exist a certain testudinal resistance to new ideas among older quarters. There will be those who doubt the very existence of aggregate vehicular life, or who insist that the zoo of the road dwells in metaphor alone.
The opinions of such sceptics could be changed by a single night spent on a grassy hill overlooking a well-travelled country highway, watching the streams of red and silver lights merge and split, compress and attenuate, roil and interact, fatten and reproduce...
Watch the roads, and see the zoo for yourself. There is no denying its patterns of insectile purpose, its myriad variations in anatomy and configuration, or the orchestrated madness of the low-cost petroleum feeding frenzy. Your own mind, honed by thousands of generations of natural selection to recognise life from non-life, will tell you it is true; the disciplines of careful observation and meticulous classification will tell you how, and why.
Open your eyes, and witness an untapped world.
About The Author
Matthew Hemming is an animator and amateur automotive ethologist based in Toronto, Canada.
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In the depths of the Pacific Ocean, a hydrothermal vent that the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) named SuBastian explored in early March is a remarkable sight ...
How US–China political tensions are affecting science Nature.com
Conference travel, research visas, science funding and security clearance are all touched by the geopolitics.
Evidence for hormonal control of heart regenerative capacity during endothermy acquisition - Science Magazine
Evidence for hormonal control of heart regenerative capacity during endothermy acquisition Science Magazine
Among vertebrates, zebrafish and salamanders can regenerate their hearts, whereas adult mice and humans cannot. Hirose et al. analyzed diploid ...
Brazil's Jair Bolsanaro slashes funding to scientists. The planet may suffer. National Geographic
When Jair Bolsonaro began his presidency of Brazil in January he quickly began making good on his campaign promises to rollback protections of the Amazon ...
Archaeologists unearth largest Mayan figurine factory to date Science Magazine
ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO—Archaeologists working in Guatemala have discovered the largest known figurine workshop in the Mayan world, they ...
National Academy of Sciences will vote on ejecting sexual harassers Science Magazine
The U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C., will ask its members this month to change the organization's bylaws to allow proven sexual ...
Millipede Genitals Glow Different Colors (But Scientists Can't Explain Why) Live Science
Scientists recently discovered that numerous millipede species fluoresce, and the glow of their genitals varies between species.
Ancient sculptors made magnetic figures from rocks struck by lightning Science News
People living at least 2,000 years ago near the Pacific Coast of what's now Guatemala crafted massive human sculptures with magnetized foreheads, cheeks ...
Thirst regulates motivated behavior through modulation of brainwide neural population dynamics - Science Magazine
Thirst regulates motivated behavior through modulation of brainwide neural population dynamics Science Magazine
How is it that groups of neurons dispersed through the brain interact to generate complex behaviors? Three papers in this issue present brain-scale studies of ...
Are climate sceptic Peter Ridd's controversial reef views validated by his unfair dismissal win? - ABC News
Are climate sceptic Peter Ridd's controversial reef views validated by his unfair dismissal win? ABC News
Marine physicist Peter Ridd has won his case for unfair dismissal against James Cook University, but his views as a climate sceptic were not on trial, Jo Khan ...
Sustained rescue of prefrontal circuit dysfunction by antidepressant-induced spine formation - Science Magazine
Sustained rescue of prefrontal circuit dysfunction by antidepressant-induced spine formation Science Magazine
A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the action of antidepressants is urgently needed. Moda-Sava et al. explored a possible mode of action for ...
New species of ancient human unearthed in the Philippines Science Magazine
A strange new species may have joined the human family. Human fossils found in a cave on Luzon, the largest island in the Philippines, include tiny molars ...
Droplet trains reveal how nature navigates blood traffic: Scientists found alternating flocks in micro-channels and explained how the flocks can be thinned. - Science Daily
Droplet trains reveal how nature navigates blood traffic: Scientists found alternating flocks in micro-channels and explained how the flocks can be thinned. Science Daily
Scientists report that they discovered spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic droplet networks. The scientists have successfully modeled network channels ...
Is Dentistry a Science? The Atlantic
It's much less scientific—and more prone to gratuitous procedures—than you may think.
Persistence of intense, climate-driven runoff late in Mars history Science Advances
Mars is dry today, but numerous precipitation-fed paleo-rivers are found across the planet's surface. These rivers' existence is a challenge to models of planetary ...
Ancient 'Snowball Earth' thawed out in a flash Science Magazine
More than half a billion years ago, our planet was a giant snowball hurtling through space. Glaciers blanketed the globe all the way to the equator in one of the ...
How to recover after exercise — the new science The Times
What is your post-training recovery routine? Perhaps you sink into a sofa with an extensive snack supply. Or maybe you make like the American footballer Tom ...
These suicidal aphids repair their home with their own bodily fluids Science Magazine
The gall aphid's home repair strategy gives new meaning to the phrase “sweat equity.” These insects use their own bodily fluids to patch holes in the walls of ...
U.S. judge rules deceptive publisher should pay $50 million in damages Science Magazine
A U.S. federal judge has ordered the OMICS International publishing group to pay $50.1 million in damages for deceiving thousands of authors who published in ...
How Scientists 3D Printed a Tiny Heart from Human Cells Live Science
It has four chambers, blood vessels and it beats — sort of. In a first, scientists have 3D printed a heart using human tissue. Though the heart is much smaller than ...
Boston University fires geologist found to have harassed women in Antarctica Science Magazine
Boston University (BU) today fired David Marchant, the geologist whose alleged harassment of women at remote Antarctic field camps Science first described 18 ...
Don't abandon evidence and process on air pollution policy Science Advances
Air pollution kills—scientists have known this for many years. But how do they know? The global scientific community has developed and agreed upon a ...
Unbiased detection of CRISPR off-targets in vivo using DISCOVER-Seq Science Magazine
Unintended genomic modifications limit the potential therapeutic use of gene-editing tools. Available methods to find off-targets generally do not work in vivo or ...
Ebola outbreak in Congo still not an international crisis, WHO decides Science Magazine
No need to sound the world's loudest public health alarm bell about the lingering Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), an expert ...
Israeli scientists create world's first 3D-printed heart using human cells NBC News
Israeli researchers have created an entire 3D-printed heart made from human cells in what they say is a world first. The heart doesn't beat and is too small for ...
Universities will soon announce action against scientists who broke NIH rules, agency head says - Science Magazine
Universities will soon announce action against scientists who broke NIH rules, agency head says Science Magazine
Some U.S. universities will announce in the next week or two actions they have taken to prevent foreign governments from taking unfair advantage of research ...
The Lost History of One of the World’s Strangest Science Experiments The New York Times
The hummingbirds were dying. Cockroaches were everywhere. And then Steve Bannon showed up.
Sensitive intervention points in the post-carbon transition Science Advances
Conventional approaches to mitigating climate change are not working. Despite the actions pledged under the 2015 Paris Agreement, actual progress is falling ...
The Fall and Fall of the p-Zine
Institute of Noetic Sciences
The possibility of sentient beings on earlier solar systems said to be many billions of years older than our own, developing travel and transposition of some teleportational nature seems one of the most stable and down to earth possibilities when we consider these spheres. Other ideas flit through our mind as we imagineer the conscious wisdom of refined metallurgical objects beyond mere silica microchips and revisit what Dr Robins termed the megaliths - macrochips.
Environmental Eco-Terrorists Must Be Stopped
Eco-terrorists assume some how they are helping the environment, by causing news worthy events and starting forest fires or burning down developments. Yet in doing so they cause air pollution and kill animals.
Electric Power Production From Magnetic Tapes
ATHENS - GREECE, -- An individual person called Basil Dimitropoulos, who is a graduate Electrical Engineer with specialization in Magnetic Recording Applications, has long announced that he developed a project that concerns Electric Power Production From Magnetic Tapes. This electromotive system affects directly the Global Home Appliances Industry and Transportation Industry, resulting in portable and mobile power supplies for Household Devices and Electric Vehicles.
CCTV Decoy Registration System
Avoiding cameras? Gotcha, what are you trying to hide from. Cameras in Subways and airports often do not get a face shot good enough for face recognition software.
Hobbits and Lice
HOBBITS AND LICE:In late 2004 the media was all agog with the small hominids found on Flores Island where I had written about artifacts showing sea travel technology must have existed. I had argued with many people about the issue and their argument had some merit in that we had no proof of a connection to humans or the nearby Mungo Man.
The Intricacies of a Compound Microscope
Have you ever used a compound microscope? Your first thought may be to answer "no" but chances are if you had Biology in high school or college that you have used a compound microscope. What do you remember about this microscope? You may remember what it looks like but can you recall how it worked? If not, this article is for you!A compound microscope uses light to illuminate the sample or object so that you can see it with your eye.
That Dust on Your Car May Soon Be Smarter Than You Think?
Here is a thought to get this topic started. A thought on a smart dust design.
The Bermuda Triangle and Antarctica
The art or science of metallurgy is vital to the social structures surrounding all esoteric beliefs. They are the most tangible items of the cosmic soup that are possibly drawn to certain Earth Energy Grid locations as we shall see.
How I Became Interested In Looking At The Moon
Like a lot of kids, my folks gave me a 60mm telescope for Christmas one year. The scope was a typical department-store brand - not very good - but to a 12-year old kid it opened up the universe.
An Immortal Horse
Egyptian scholars know there is little other than fiction that can be written about the civilization that lived on the banks of the Nile in far more recent times than the beginning of the 'Old Copper Culture'. All these things are related and the old fictions are replaceable with the story of a worldwide culture with trading posts in each and every part of the world.
'Kenyanthropus platyops': - Perhaps the 6,000,000 year old men found by a maverick who went behind the authorities back at the Olduvai Gorge will be proven to actually not be outside the australopithecine lineage. But the Leakey family has found a 3.
MP Apprehension of High Strung or Drunken Soldiers
Recently scientists have discovered the hydrogen sulfide gas caused mice to go into spontaneous hibernation. The genetic similarities to the mammalian class humans belong to includes these rodents as well.
How Body Piercing Works -- The Ins and Outs of this Cutting Edge Process
Body piercing (defined as any piercing beyond the standard earlobe piercing) has become such a popular form of body modification that between five and ten percent of the population of the United States has indulged in at least one form of it at some time in their lives. In most cases, once a person gets a body piercing, they follow the first one with more.
June 2005: Weather Forecasts for Vacationers
If Johannes Kepler, the renowned 17th century astronomer and discoverer of the planetary laws of motion, could speak from the heavenlies, he might have a few words of wisdom to share with the National Weather Service. Although Kepler's name is not normally associated with meteorology, he was quite the weather forecaster in his day.
The Debate About Cloning
There are two types of cloning. One involves harvesting stem cells from embryos ("therapeutic cloning").
Hydro-Mini Tsunami-Perpetual Wave Making Machine
Let's describe this idea as a Self Generating a Tsunami-Perpetual Wave Pattern Making Machine to Derive Mini-Hydro Power Systems in Rivers.Hydro-Mini Tsunami-Perpetual Wave Making Machine.
Efficient Transportation Systems
We see in the organized world of the Japanese with their transit systems and floating airports and super engineering anti-Tsunami bridges many ideas in the theory of flow, which assists every part of their society and civilizations. They are masters of the flow of transportations and work hard to perfect every aspect and detail of their transportation system.
Big Bang or Lots of Big Fire Crackers?
There are many who talk about the Big Bang Theory. Although no one can be sure what went bang? Steven Hawking suggests it does not matter what went bang, because we will never know, so let's think on things we can know.
The Best and Worst of April's Weather
If Johannes Kepler, the renowned 17th century astronomer and discoverer of the planetary laws of motion, could speak from the heavenlies, he might have a few words of wisdom to share with the National Weather Service. Although Kepler's name is not normally associated with meteorology, he was quite the weather forecaster in his day.
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